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Video: How To Use Herbicides In Your Garden
2023 Author: Sebastian Paterson | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 20:34
Runny ordinary along the edge of the site
Appearing immediately after the snow melts and the first warming up of the earth by the sun, annual and perennial weeds stick out their tops from the soil, taking nutrients from cultivated plants. After a while, they "clog" them with their shadow and well-developed root system.
Perennial weeds (creeping wheatgrass, sow thistles, thistles, shepherd's purse, field bindweed, medicinal dandelion, common dandelion, stinging nettle, horse sorrel, caustic buttercup, etc.) and annuals (white marrow, small-flowered galinsoga and other.), which have a high reproductive capacity. This problem is seriously aggravated by the autumn application of organic matter (manure or compost) to household plots, which often contributes to the sudden appearance of huge hordes of weeds that were not here before. Everything is explained simply: their seeds, having passed through the digestive tract of animals, it is not known on what meadows and pastures that ate, usually do not lose their germination. If we do not destroy the weeds in our summer cottages and garden plots, then you can be left without a significant part of the harvest,therefore, with these enemies, whether you like it or not, you have to fight.
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Weeds in the field
Of course, the most optimal (environmentally friendly), but also the most labor-intensive way to combat weeds is regular manual weeding and conscientious selection of root sections of perennial weeds that grow well on loose soils. In this case, it is desirable to free the deep layer of soil from them. Unfortunately, for a significant reduction in soil contamination by annual weeds and the complete eradication of such perennial weeds as thistles, sow thistles, creeping wheatgrass, medicinal dandelion and other species in a similar way will take at least 3-5 years. If this work is interrupted at least for a season, the weed vegetation will quickly restore its numbers. This is facilitated by a number of biological properties of weeds, acquired by them in the course of evolution - their high fertility,non-simultaneous germination and the ability of seeds to maintain germination for many years, as well as propagation of perennial weeds by vegetative means. In some plants (sow thistle, blue cornflower, sweet clover, medicinal dandelion, etc.) even unripe seeds germinate. If such seeds remain on a plucked or cut mother plant, then they ripen, crumble and replenish seed stocks in the soil.
In recent years, due to increased physical exertion, many gardeners and gardeners, including myself, have to apply, albeit to a limited extent, herbicides. It is known that their correct use can significantly facilitate work on a personal plot. Translated from Latin, the word "herbicide" means "killing grass." Some drugs, falling on the leaf surface, cause burns and subsequent death (local action), others are absorbed by the leaf surface of the aerial part inside and currents of plant juices reach the root system, affecting it (systemic action). Thanks to the use of herbicides, soil moisture is retained as a result of the reduction of mechanical treatments.
Although the range of herbicides is quite extensive for use on large farms, their number is relatively small for use in the private sector. The annually republished “Catalog of pesticides and agrochemicals in the territory of the Russian Federation” specifies the herbicides permitted for use on private households. For many years now, herbicides-analogues based on glyphosate have been offered quite successfully for the private sector - roundup, tornado and tornado BAU, ground, glyphos, zero and others. They are drugs of general exterminating (total) systemic action and are characterized by high versatility in relation to a wide range of weeds. Preparations of this group are considered safe for the environment, low-toxic for warm-blooded animals, for bees and other beneficial insects and do not accumulate in animal tissues, do not irritate the skin. The active substance - glyphosate - decomposes in the soil (there it loses its herbicidal activity and decomposes relatively quickly into natural substances: carbon dioxide, water and phosphates), therefore there is no negative aftereffect for sowing the following crops after the introduction of the toxic chemical. It is believed that the drug does not enter the plant through the soil, does not interfere with seed germination.
Roundup is offered much more often than other drugs in agricultural stores: it has been used abroad for more than 30 years, in Russia since the 90s. Once in a plant, a systemic herbicide destroys both annual and perennial weeds, disrupting physiological processes (for example, protein synthesis) in young dividing cells, so it is very important to know when it is best to use it. The value of Roundup and its analogues is their ability to penetrate into the root system of such hard-to-eradicate perennial weeds such as sow thistles, thistles, creeping wheatgrass, stinging nettle, horse sorrel, caustic buttercup, shepherd's purse, field bindweed, medicinal dandelion. However, in my opinion, it is still difficult to completely destroy many of them in one treatment, even if the work is done correctly. After all, the root system of these plants is often very developed, has a huge length and numerous underground tillering nodes and dormant buds.
Preparations of the glyphosate group are highly effective only when the weeds have a sufficiently developed aboveground mass. Therefore, it is important to wait before spraying the full emergence of seedlings of annual weeds with a good vegetative mass (they are usually affected at all stages of their growth and development) - regrowth of wheatgrass up to 10-20 cm (with 3-5 leaves), the formation of good rosettes of leaves of perennial root-sprouting weeds (sow, thistles, etc.). When processing flowering plants, the drug stops flowering and leads to drying out of flowers, leaves and stems. In the latter case, the effect is enhanced by increasing the movement of the herbicide along with the seasonal outflow of storage substances into the root system. However, the drug does not affect those weeds that germinate after treatment (on the site itself or are later introduced from neighbors),therefore, a properly treated area may after a while again turn out to be overgrown, however, these will be mainly annual plants.
The effectiveness of herbicides is greatly influenced by weather conditions. When the weather is sunny, favorable for the growth and development of plants, the penetration of drugs into them increases, when it is cool, it weakens, and their death, respectively, accelerates or slows down. In hot or windy weather, in case of emergency, drugs should be applied in the morning and evening hours; it is not recommended to carry out this work with abundant dew, which reduces the effectiveness of chemical treatment. It should be borne in mind that in hot dry weather, damage to the leaf surface of neighboring plants is possible even with vapors of the preparation; of course, the drift of the solution to neighboring areas is absolutely not allowed.
Some experts consider the best spraying time to be in the evening, when there is an outflow of nutrients from the aboveground mass to the underground. With the active formation of their aboveground mass by weeds during this period of their development, the flow of plastic substances from underground organs to aboveground ones during the day somewhat dominates their outflow, and therefore limits the penetration of the herbicide into the roots of perennial weeds. It is possible to apply herbicides in cool weather, but at positive temperatures, before the onset of stable frosts, although it is preferable to carry out the work in a timely manner in favorable climatic conditions - warm, sunny weather. Indeed, according to experts, weeds die more actively in warm weather than in cold weather. For optimum herbicide results, the weeds must grow vigorously at the time of spraying under good soil moisture conditions. If the weeds are suffering from drought, then they try to postpone the spraying until the onset of a favorable time.
To prevent the drug from getting on the leaves of agricultural and ornamental plants, directional spraying is used on vegetative weeds. Cultivated plants, especially vegetable crops and berry crops, are carefully covered using wooden boards, plywood and plastic wrap as a screen. If drops hit these plants by accident (chlorosis, death of the leaf surface, and then the root system are possible), then they are immediately washed off with a stream of clean water or the branches of shrubs or trees are removed entirely to avoid their death. In hot dry weather, damage to the leaf surface of neighboring plants is possible even with vapors of the drug.
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In personal subsidiary farms, especially those with a large area of land, it is possible to successfully apply herbicides, for example, in the complete destruction of weeds when developing new lands; in the spring - in the near-trunk circles of fruit trees and grape bushes, in the fall - after harvesting for sowing the next year, as well as in the spring - to destroy weeds along fences, buildings, paths and the outside of greenhouses. For example, the most optimal use of the herbicide is considered to be its use in the summer on fallow (resting) fields and on newly developed plots where perennial weeds prevail: ideal conditions are created here for both the germination of weeds and their development, and for choosing the optimal processing time. Only the edges of the used area can be processed if necessary. If a herbicide is used on perennial plantations of fruit trees against a complex of weeds, then it is carefully sprayed between the plants, protecting their stems from getting the herbicide on them.
In the autumn period, there are not always favorable conditions for spraying. For example, a weak development of weeds is observed, sometimes the leaf surface of the weeds is damaged by early frosts or low temperatures slow down biological processes. In this case, the result from the use of herbicides is reduced. At the same time, this period is the safest for the environment from using the drug, especially if the crop is harvested.
Against annual cereal and dicotyledonous weeds, it is recommended to use Roundup and its analogs at the rate: per 100 m² - 40 ml, against perennial weeds - 60 ml. The most economical treatments are in areas where there is a simultaneous infestation with annual and especially difficult to eradicate perennial weeds. Where there are no such perennials or there are very few, the use of the drug may not be financially justified. If perennial weeds are not found everywhere, then the site can be processed selectively. Seedlings of only annual weeds on the site are cheaper to destroy using a conventional hoe (pruning) or loosening when hilling. In autumn, good results are observed when using 50-60 ml per 100 m². On plantings of potatoes in the spring, the processing of fields is carried out 4-5 days before the emergence of shoots (20-30 ml per 100 m²).
The rate of translocation in different types of weeds is not the same, it largely depends on the humidity and air temperature. If annual weeds die relatively quickly - after 5-10 days, then for perennials it will take at least 2-4 weeks (this process is especially time-consuming in the presence of powerful stems in the thistle of the field and pink sow thistle); also, you should not carry out mechanical soil cultivation (hoeing, digging) at this time. Getting on the leaf surface of plants, the drug is relatively slowly absorbed by it, therefore, for its full penetration inside, at least 6 hours without precipitation and watering are required. Only in this case, a lethal dose of the active substance enters the plant.
It is very advisable to treat with herbicide in areas infested with perennial, difficult to eradicate weeds. They save gardeners from the need to carry out repeated manual treatments. But if separate shoots or tiny areas of such weed vegetation appeared on the crops of the summer cottage, then it is preferable to use a brush here, moistening the foliage with a 20-50% solution of the herbicide.
To avoid the need to fell trees, cuts are made in their wood with a hatchet, then 1 ml of a 50% solution of herbicide is injected there with an injector, while notches are made on the trunk at a distance of 2-3 cm from each other. To remove stumps from the cut trees on their fresh cut is applied with a 25% aqueous solution.
It has been noticed that some perennial weeds are highly resistant to herbicides. Therefore, some experts propose to enhance the herbicidal effect by adding ammonium sulfate to the solution (150-170 g per bucket of solution). Due to this, the effect of the drug increases several times. Since after the dissolution of this fertilizer, insoluble impurities may remain in the container, then before work the final solution must be carefully filtered through 3-4 layers of gauze so as not to clog the sprayer.
It should be noted that there are some subtleties of preparing a working solution of herbicides. Experts believe that the effectiveness of drugs decreases if their solution is prepared in a metal container and hard water is used. In their opinion, this is due to the interaction of the active substance of glyphosate with metals and salts in water (with calcium, magnesium, iron, aluminum). It is advisable to prepare a working solution immediately before use; it is permissible to store it for no more than a week in a glass or plastic container in a cool dark place. With prolonged storage, the prepared solution of the drug loses its positive qualities. In order for the working solution to be evenly applied to the above-ground mass of weeds, a sprayer with spray tips should be used (the pressure in the unit should not be allowed above 1-1.5 atmospheres);after work, it is required to repeatedly rinse all its working parts with water. The use of such technical means as brooms or piston sprayers often used by gardeners during herbicide treatments is categorically unacceptable.
Although all of the above herbicides are classified as harmless to bees, nevertheless, certain rules must be followed. For example, spraying plants in the early morning or late evening; at the same time, it is imperative to inform the neighbors-beekeepers about the upcoming chemical treatments in their plots. It is strictly forbidden to use herbicides on household plots that are not allowed for the private sector by the state "Catalog of Pesticides".
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