Table of contents:
- How to increase the fertility of the garden with the help of fertilizing (part 2)
- Root dressing in the classic version
- Root dressing "for the lazy"
- Foliar dressing
Video: Types Of Dressings
How to increase the fertility of the garden with the help of fertilizing (part 2)
Read the first part of the article: On the shortage and excess of plant nutrients
Practice shows: if during the whole season you do not ensure the timely supply of plants with the whole complex of nutrients, then you can not expect a harvest (except, perhaps, solid black soil). Even if the entire volume of fertilizers is applied before sowing or planting seedlings … The latter, however, is only worse - the use of high dosages of fertilizers can lead to negative consequences (if we are not talking about the so-called long-lasting fertilizers), and again there will be no harvest.
Nutrition in plants (as well as in humans) must be balanced and regular - there is no other way. Have to feed dosed - in small portions. How? The options may be different - depending on personal preferences, the presence or absence of time and energy, etc.
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Root dressing in the classic version
The most famous and widely described method in all smart books is to carry out root dressings, which should be regular, and here the principle is better less, but more often. How to organize this? You can run around with buckets yourself all summer, carrying out weekly feeding (since it is with such feeding that the result is best), or you can set up drip irrigation systems with regular application of carefully calculated micro-doses of fertilizers through these systems.
The first method is exhausting to the fullest - it turns out that all summer you are spinning in the garden so that you do not see the white light (even if you use all possible techniques for the reasonable organization of labor), but the effect is obvious. If this is your way, then it is wiser (in terms of labor costs) to first try to form a truly fertile soil on the entire site. Then feeding will be required less often, and it will even be possible to vary them, for example, feeding one group of crops (for example, pumpkin and nightshade) for one week, the next week for another, say, cabbage, etc. In practice, it is much easier, and you don't get so tired.
As for the rapid formation of soil rich in humus, it seems difficult only at first glance. Try to estimate, calculate the financial and your own labor costs and then you will understand that it will be really cheaper and easier this way. Here is the most budgetary option. You need to bring a car of cardboard to the site (ordinary, from boxes of food, medicines, etc. - they are taken out at a certain time from grocery stores, and you just have to hurry up). And then spread the cardboard (preferably wet) over the area. Then unload a couple of cars of straw or hay on top (hay is better, but it is more expensive) and sprinkle everything on top with a thin layer of thermally treated bird droppings. You can use manure or raw droppings, but this is already physically harder. And leave it all for the season, not forgetting to moisten the "pie" from time to time,if there is not enough rainfall from passing rains. You can also sow oats or barley in the middle of summer right on top of all this "pie", which then in the spring will need to be evenly mixed with a flat cutter along with all other organic matter. And then, in this one season alone, your site will be so ennobled that in the future it will become much easier with root dressings, although you still cannot do without them.
I want to note that this option is suitable only for those areas where there are no fruit, berry and other plantations. Close to such plantings (slightly stepping back from the trunks), cardboard, straw and hay can be used as mulching material, but fresh manure and droppings, of course, not.
You can feed the plants in a different way - do not carry buckets, but set up a drip irrigation system. There are options here. Enthusiasts run hoses everywhere for drip humidification and place numerous barrels with taps in which the fertilizer solution is diluted. This is quite laborious, the hoses are constantly clogged, the barrels do not withstand fertilizer mixtures and quickly collapse (if the barrels are not made of plastic), and everything has to be updated - in general, a constant job for men.
If such a feat of labor does not inspire you, then you can install a modern drip irrigation system on the site, which will ensure an even distribution of not only water over the site, but also solutions of mineral fertilizers. And it can even be controlled using a computer (this means that it is enough to set the watering time, and the system will provide watering and feeding in your absence). But the construction of such systems is not cheap pleasure, and it is not so bad. Worse, they need to be built when laying the site, and not in the garden, where everything has long been planted and growing. After all, it is unlikely that anyone would want to destroy the garden cleanly for the sake of laying an irrigation system (orchards do not grow quickly). In addition, there is another nuance - purchased systems tend to clog up no less often than home-made ones. The thing is,that the water (or nutrient solution) entering them must be free of any sand and impurities, otherwise the systems quickly fail. This means that one cannot do without preliminary water purification. Expenses are added. So, alas, there is no ideal option here.
Well, and one more nuance of root dressings - they can be liquid and dry. Liquid dressings are absorbed much faster and, as a result, are more effective than dressings in the form of dry mixtures. However, one should resort to liquid dressing only during the period of active plant growth - in late spring and during the summer. At the same time, nitrogen and potash fertilizers (as well as complex mixtures of fertilizers with macro- and microelements) can be applied both in dry and liquid form. As for phosphorus fertilizers, due to their chemical characteristics, they are usually used in dry form, and the granules are well embedded in the soil.
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Root dressing "for the lazy"
As noted above, if you fully rely on traditional root dressing, then you will not be left without work during the season. However, with age, energy and strength decreases, and it becomes more difficult to carry heavy buckets of solutions once a week around the site - neither the back nor the hands can withstand - I think many will understand me here.
However, you should not despair, because with a special desire, you can do practically without root dressings if you switch to long-acting fertilizers (they are also called prolonged-release fertilizers or "long-playing fertilizers"). Unlike conventional fertilizers, such fertilizers have the ability to release nutrients gradually, which means that they can be applied in full immediately upon planting, and then limited to watering and, if necessary, foliar dressing (in some cases, the latter may not even be required).
Today, there are a lot of such fertilizers on the Russian market, most of them are Western-made (GreenWorld, Bazakot, Osmokot, Etisso, Pokon, etc.), but there are also Russian ones (Apion). Such fertilizers are usually presented in the form of granules, small cylindrical rods or sachets with a water-permeable shell. Naturally, each group of plants has its own brands of such fertilizers, in which the composition and dosage differ somewhat. For small potted plants, one type has been developed, for large flowers in pots - another, for vegetable plants in the ground - a third, for vegetable plants in a greenhouse - a fourth, for large fruit trees - a fifth.
In practice, such fertilizers are used very simply: when planting, it is enough to apply fertilizers under the plants in accordance with the instructions. The granules are simply put into the soil, the rods are placed under the plants, and the sachets are buried in the area of the root system. And no worries - all feeding problems will be solved. And not only this - along with a simultaneous very noticeable (after all, you no longer have to feed regularly) reduction in labor costs, the use of "long-playing fertilizers" gives a significant increase in yield. Why? Everything is simple here - the plants continuously receive all the substances they need throughout the growing season, which means that delays in development due to lack of nutrition are excluded, which gives an increase in the yield. True, "long-lasting fertilizers" cost much more than conventional fertilizers, but they are really worth it !!!Although, of course, I cannot answer for all brands of fertilizers - I myself have been using Apions in the open field and GreenWorld granules for growing seedlings for many years, and I am very satisfied.
True, one nuance should be noted here. In reality, things may not be as rosy as the producers of such fertilizers promise. But the reason for the failure lies in the mistakes of the gardeners and gardeners themselves. There are some subtleties. Firstly, despite the loud phrases about the impossibility of overdosing such fertilizers, an overdose in practice is possible if, for example, high dosage Apions, which are intended for trees, are installed under potted plants. In my opinion, all this is already obvious, but such mistakes do happen in practice. So you just need to strictly follow the recommendations of the manufacturers.
The second, which is also usually noted by manufacturers in the instructions: you should ensure that the plants are regularly watered in the right amount. If this is not done (say, heat, water is not enough, etc.), then various unpleasant surprises are possible.
Third, not all nutrients can be supplied in the amount necessary for plants. We are talking about magnesium and calcium - these substances simply cannot be dosed out, since on different soils in this sense the situation is very different (how can you choose the correct dosage for everyone?). Manufacturers do not speak loudly about this nuance, but it should also be borne in mind. This means that if the soil is acidic, then none of the most expensive "long-lasting fertilizers" will save you from the need for autumn liming of the soil. As for magnesium, it is also lacking in many soils, so you may need to use magnesium-containing fertilizers (for example, MagBor). But compared with regular feeding, this is no longer so scary, since the most picky crops in this sense (greenhouse crops,cauliflower and apple trees), just feed it once. And even better 2-3 times a season to make foliar feeding with complex fertilizer with macro- and microelements and huminates. And it's not difficult at all compared to the endless drag and drop of fertilizer buckets.
Well, there are also extreme situations (at least in the Urals, this is a common thing) - for example, continuous showers, when the dose of potassium and nitrogen in sandy soils decreases very quickly. Then, alas, the supply of these nutrients has to be replenished by carrying out the usual root feeding.
It is not a secret for anyone that the main doses of nutrients are introduced at the root - therefore, in matters of nutrition, the main role is given to root dressing. However, they may not be enough to get good yields. Although everything is rather ambiguous here: the initial soil fertility, and the nuances of the climate in a particular region, and the conditions of a given summer matter.
Unlike root dressings for foliar applications, which are carried out over the leaves by spraying, and not under the root, you cannot add much nutrition - the plants will die. But when using micro doses of fertilizers in nutrient solutions for foliar spraying, you can literally observe real miracles. Plants become livelier and more cheerful, their foliage turns out to be more lush and beautiful, the general resistance to adverse factors increases, and growth and development accelerate. Also, early flowering and early formation of the crop are stimulated, and the total volume of products obtained also increases.
Why is that? Just through the leaves of the plant, the nutrients are absorbed much faster. So foliar feeding should be perceived as a kind of "ambulance" for plants in case of lack of nutrition and as a kind of growth and development stimulant, of course, provided that the composition of such feedings is well thought out.
The technology for carrying out foliar dressing does not present any difficulties - the plants are sprayed with a weak solution of fertilizers in cloudy weather or late in the evening (of course, you should not spray heat-loving crops in the evening).
Why exactly on these dates? Well, firstly, it is impossible to spray even with weak fertilizer solutions in the sun (it is fraught with burns). Secondly, it is necessary to lengthen the residence time of the solution on the sheet surface in order to achieve the maximum effect; when the nutrient solution on the leaves dries quickly, the effect is noticeably reduced. And one more thing - when spraying, you need to achieve uniform and complete wetting of the leaves, treating, among other things, the lower side of the leaf blade. Again, in order to get the most out of the procedure.
How often should you spray? The question is complex, and it is simply impossible to give an unambiguous answer to it. Firstly, there are continuous disagreements between specialists, for example, many Russian experts recommend limiting themselves to a couple of dressings per season: during the period of the beginning of the intensive formation of the leaf apparatus and during active flowering and fruiting. In the West, where they prefer intensive agricultural technologies (in Holland, Finland, etc.), they practice spraying with nutrient solutions once every 7-10 days. I have been spraying according to this scheme for many years and I can confirm that the results are stunning. Plants develop rapidly, are unusually beautiful and delight with an excellent harvest.
Theoretically, with foliar spraying, you can use any water-soluble fertilizers - strictly according to the instructions, that is, in no case exceeding the permissible concentration. Solutions of increased concentration can not only burn the leaves, but also completely destroy the plants.
What kind of fertilizers should you take? It all depends on the tasks set. If you find that your pets need urgent ambulance, for example, there is a noticeable lack of nitrogen or potassium, then you can feed them with solutions of appropriate fertilizers. In this case, urea or potassium sulfate, respectively. By the way, when carrying out nitrogen fertilizing for crops with delicate foliage, for example, cucumbers - they often have to be a little "encouraged", you need to be extremely careful because of the danger of leaf burns. Having learned from bitter experience, I slightly reduce the recommended dose with nitrogen fertilizing, since I have encountered situations when the dose of nitrogen in the fertilizer declared on the package is exceeded. There are no such troubles with potassium - fertilizers just need to be taken at the rate.
In situations where you just want to achieve accelerated plant development, you need to take a water-soluble complex fertilizer with macro- and microelements, for example, Fertika Lux. It is not bad to combine such feeding with feeding huminates. You can take a ready-made mixture of this kind - there are a lot of them on the market: New Ideal, Impulse + and others, or you can prepare such a complex fertilizer with huminates yourself, which is much cheaper. I cook myself (by analogy in our family this fertilizer is also called “Ideal”) - on the basis of the aforementioned Fertik Lux fertilizer and the humic preparation Fitosporin-M.
Finally, there are situations when a slight deficiency of potassium or nitrogen is found, and at the same time it makes sense to also carry out a general feeding of plants with the whole complex of nutrients. In this case, I dilute my “Ideal” at the rate and add a little urea or potassium sulfate to it as needed, and everything turns out fine.