Table of contents:
- Microbiological preparations for ecological plant protection
- Biologicals for plant pest control
- Biologicals for Disease Control
Video: Biological Products For Pest And Disease Control
2023 Author: Sebastian Paterson | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 20:34
Microbiological preparations for ecological plant protection
Microbiological products are the most important means of protecting plants from pests and diseases in organic (biological, ecological) agriculture. The main feature of these remedies is their harmlessness to humans, the environment, domestic and wild animals, insects (pollinators, entomophages) and other representatives of the biocenosis.
The range of microbiological agents over the past decade has been replenished with the latest developments of scientists in Russia, some of them are produced and sold through a retail chain of stores. Along with other non-biological means of protection recommended for growing environmentally friendly products, they should be in the first-aid kit of every gardener, farmer for treating plants from diseases and pest control.
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In most cases, the preparations contain live microorganisms: bacteria, fungi, viruses. Some of the beneficial microorganisms can produce natural toxins, antibiotic substances, growth stimulants contained in biological products. Others - radiant fungi, or actinomycetes with the help of biotechnologies when cultivated on nutrient media in the process of biosynthesis, release chemicals that have high insecticidal activity, for example, phytoverm preparations, acarin, vertimek. That is why they are called biochemical remedies. Considering their low toxic load on biocenoses, sparing effect on beneficial insects, spiders and mites, fast absorption by the leaf surface of plants,short waiting time (time of the last treatment before harvesting two days) they can also be recommended for plant protection in organic farming.
All developed drugs pass the stage of registration tests and then are included in the State catalog of plant protection products permitted for use in agriculture, including in personal subsidiary plots. The characteristics of the preparations described in this article are based on many years of experience in the practical use of microbiological plant protection products in the farms of the Leningrad region and their personal use in their own garden plot.
Biologicals for plant pest control
Biologicals based on BT bacteria (Bacillus thuringiensis).
Lepidocide - the drug is used to combat the caterpillars of lepidopteran insects (butterflies), sawfly caterpillars on vegetable, fruit and berry, flower and ornamental, medicinal crops, as well as on forest deciduous and coniferous species.
Bitoxibacillin (BTB-202) - in addition to the types of pests listed above, acts on the larvae of the Colorado potato beetle, it can be used to combat spider mites in greenhouses. The most effective working concentrations are 0.5-1.0% (5-10 g / l of water). Treatments are carried out from sprayers. In greenhouses on cucumbers, melons, watermelons, roses and other crops, the most effective concentrations in the fight against spider mites are 1.0-2.0% (10-20 g / l of water), while the liquid consumption is from 0.1 to 0.3 l per 1 m², depending on the type and foliage of plants.
The use of sprayers allows you to evenly apply the drug to the surface of the leaf and pests. With extended egg-laying of the pest, two treatments are usually carried out with an interval of 7-10 days against each generation, in the morning or evening hours, with an average daily temperature of at least 16 … 17 ° C. Heavy rains that have passed one day after treatment can greatly reduce the effectiveness of spraying with biological products. Therefore, it is necessary to follow the weather forecast, and in unfavorable conditions, processing should be postponed.
When using biological products, which most often come to the distribution network in the form of powders, it is important to correctly prepare the working fluid for pastes. To do this, a measured amount of the drug, calculated for a certain area, is placed in a container (bowl, cup, saucepan, etc.) with a small amount of water. The contents of the bag are rubbed in water between the fingers of the palms, using rubber gloves. After that, the amount of water required for spraying is added to the resulting suspension and everything is mixed again. Then the working suspension is filtered through a fine mesh sieve (nylon stocking, several layers of gauze) through a funnel. This operation is usually done while filling the sprayer with working solution. A small insoluble residue may remain on the sieve. Failure to do so will clog the sprayer (s,pump and other parts). After that, the working fluid must be poured out of the sprayer, and the sprayer must be cleaned and rinsed. This feature must be taken into account when using other biological products, since coarse bran and insoluble peat particles that settle on the sieve are often used in their production. It is not recommended to treat plants in the old-fashioned way, using brooms, brushes, etc. instead of a sprayer.
An analogue of lepidocid, bitoxibacillin is the drug bicol. In addition to vegetables, potatoes, cucumbers, the drug can be used on an apple tree when sprinkled against leaf-gnawing pests in the “pink bud” phenophase, the second treatment is immediately after flowering. Working concentration based on 60-160 g / 10 l of water.
The developers guarantee the shelf life of biological products, usually within 1.5 years. After the expiration of the specified period, the titer of viable spores (their number in 1 g, ml) and biological activity (virulence) begins to decrease. After the expiration of the specified storage period, the consumption rate of drugs must be increased by 1.2-1.5 times. If the drug is released during the winter period of the current year (the date is usually put on the package), it can be used for two seasons.
All-Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Microbiology has developed a drug that has a wider range of applications, which also acts on cruciferous flea beetles, strawberry-raspberry weevils and other insects. Such a drug is Batsikol. It is being prepared for state registration, after which it will be included in the catalog of plant protection products, and its wide production will begin.
The same institute has developed a drug based on actinomycetes called actinin. In addition to the Colorado potato beetle, the spider mite, it acts on the carrot beetle, which causes a strong twisting of carrot plants, especially in areas close to coniferous forests, from which it flies to umbrella crops. The drug is undergoing state registration.
Bactoculicide (bacticide) - as well as lepidocide and bitoxibacillin, is produced by the Berdsk plant of biological products in the Novosibirsk region. It is used for the treatment of reservoirs, basements, breeding places of blood-sucking mosquitoes and midges. It can also be used on rice in the fight against rice mosquitoes, as well as when growing mushrooms and oyster mushrooms to protect against mushroom sciarid mosquitoes. The stores are already starting to supply this drug in small packaging.
Nemabakt, Antonem-F - preparations developed in VIZR by L. G. Danilov on the basis of entomopathogenic nematodes and symbiotic bacteria. They were registered for the fight against the Colorado potato beetle, the larvae of click beetles - wireworms, cabbage and sea buckthorn flies, and Western flower (California) thrips. On potatoes, the drug is used for introduction into the soil when planting tubers and when spraying plants during the budding period. In 2008, we established that the deadline for the introduction of nemabact to combat wireworms after flowering should be no later than August 1
Consumption rate - one package per 100 m². More often it is produced on a carrier - a foam rubber sponge with a size of 3-7 mm. Before use, you need to squeeze the nematodes 3-5 times from the sponge with rubber gloves into a small container with water. After that, the suspension of the drug must be filtered through a nylon sieve or gauze before being poured into the sprayer. Plant treatments should be carried out at an air temperature of at least 12 ° C. The drug is produced at the Institute of Plant Protection (Pushkin, LLC "Biodan").
Here is almost the entire list of microbiological products that can be used to combat pests. Therefore, in the arsenal of gardeners should be and biochemical agents (fitoverm, akarin (Agravertin), and in Ukraine as aktofit (analog phytoverm) and gaupsin … The last of them contains two strains of bacteria, it is effective against a number of pests, and at the same time against some diseases. In the neighboring Republic of Belarus, there are also new interesting biological products that have passed state registration and are included in the catalog of plant protection products. In Russia, there are also insecticidal biological products with multifunctional properties that have a fungistatic effect. However, in practice, it is sometimes possible to make a mixture of drugs. For example, we mixed biopreparations with growth-stimulating, fungicidal (extrasol, biosil, phytosporin) and insecticidal action, immediately before the treatment of plants. This did not affect the biological effectiveness of bitoxibacillin and lepidocide in the fight against white hare caterpillars.
Most often, a gardener has to use biological products in combination with other plant protection products indicated in the list (see Flora-Price, 2010, No. 10), and other environmentally friendly products that do not require special registration, i.e. we are approaching integrated crop protection. At the same time, an important role is assigned to the monitoring of pests and diseases. Based on the survey of plantations, the need for control is determined, usually this happens when the number of pests is approaching the economic threshold of harmfulness, as well as taking into account the number of entomophages and entomopathogens on the basis of a special criterion - the level of natural enemies. However, we will tell about them in the following publications.
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Biologicals for Disease Control
Planriz - created on the basis of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Uncomplicated production technology made it possible to obtain the drug in a low-tonnage way at plant protection stations (branches of the Federal State Institution "Rosselkhoztsentr"). It is widely used in cabbage to fight bacteriosis, where chemical fungicides are not permitted. It is used for pre-sowing treatment of cereal seeds (0.5 l / ha) with a low infection with phytopathogens, for treatment of potato tubers and spraying during the growing season. The drug has a growth-stimulating effect. It can be used in integrated plant protection, in a system of alternating chemical and biological agents.
In the regions, this drug is most often produced by former plant protection stations (now branches of the Federal State Institution "Rosselkhoztsentr")
Fitosporin. A broad-spectrum drug based on Bacillus subtilis. It is used on cereals, vegetables and potatoes, for processing fruit and berry plants, in protected ground. The effect of the drug is enhanced when used together with a humic preparation (gumi). When processing plants and fruits, they are covered with a black mesh from the preparation, which for a long time prevents the penetration of phytopathogens. For example, tomatoes, processed once in mid-July 2009 from late blight, harvested at the end of August, ripened at home with practically no waste. The preparation of the working fluid must be carried out according to the method recommended for BTB-202, lepidocide.
Binoram. The drug contains two types of bacteria that are active against plant diseases, has a strong growth-stimulating effect. Finds increasing use on cereals, vegetables and potatoes for seed treatment and spraying during the growing season. In personal subsidiary plots and gardening, it is recommended for the treatment of potatoes in the fight against rhizoctonia. The consumption rate is 7.5 ml per 10 liters of water. This amount can be used to process 10 kg of potato tubers before planting. Produced by OOO Alsiko-Agroprom (Moscow).
Baktofit. It is used in open and closed ground to combat root rot, powdery mildew, late blight, rhizoctonia, black leg, fusarium, bacteriosis on vegetables, roses, cloves. Watering is carried out at the root with a 0.2-0.3% solution, spraying of plants - with a 0.5-1.0% solution. In personal subsidiary farms, it is used to protect cucumber from root rot by soaking the seeds in a 0.2% working solution for 3-6 hours.
Glyocladin. Biological product based on a fungus from the genus Gliocladium, which has a strong antagonistic effect on phytopathogens. Designed to combat root rot. The preparation on cucumber is especially effective.
Alirin, Gamair. They are among the latest developments of VIZR. The drugs are manufactured at Agrobiotechnology LLC (Moscow). Recommended for wide application in open and closed ground. Considering the low consumption rates of the drug when treating seeds and when spraying on vegetative plants, a convenient formulation that ensures the manufacturability of application, the drugs began to be in demand by large AOs, farmers, and owners of personal subsidiary farms. The drugs are available at retail. They are used according to the instructions.
The use of biologicals for disease control is different from pest control tactics. They usually begin to be used prophylactically or at the first signs of a disease.
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