Table of contents:
Video: Agrochemicals And Plant Protection Products Approved For Use In The Production Of Organic Products
In a previous article, we looked at the general principles of moving from traditional to organic farming.
Considering the fact that it is impossible to obtain high yields without the use of organic and mineral fertilizers, we will focus on the main agrochemicals that provide plant nutrition when growing a natural product, as well as on plant protection products.
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- Stable manure and poultry manure, crop residues and green manure, straw and other mulch from organic farms. The manure is used after composting and applied to the soil 120 days before harvest.
- Guano - seabird droppings, decomposed in natural conditions, containing 9% nitrogen and 15% P2 O5, compost and substrate of mushroom waste, vermiculture (in the production of worms).
- By-products of the food and textile industries, not treated with synthetic additives.
- Seaweed and algae products, sawdust, bark and wood waste, timber and charcoal not treated with chemicals.
- Natural phosphates, thomas slag, potassium salts (kainite, sylvinite, etc.), potassium sulfate, natural calcium carbonate (chalk, marl, limestone, phosphate-containing chalk).
- Lime-magnesium rocks of natural origin (dolomite flour, magnesium sulfate).
- Natural gypsum (calcium sulfate) - only from natural sources.
- By-products of sugar production (stillage and stillage extract, excluding ammonium stillage).
- Mineral salt of sodium chloride, aluminum-calcium phosphate.
- Trace elements (boron, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, sulfur).
- Stone powder (crushed basalt), alumina (bentonite, perlite, zeolite), vermiculite.
- Peat, humus from worms and insects.
- Humic acids of natural origin (only aqueous and alkaline extracts).
- Bleach, calcium chloride solution, sodium chloride.
- By-products from the processing of Guinea palm, coconut and cocoa.
- All by-products of products obtained from the processing of organic products.
All of the listed agrochemicals should be used in accordance with the application regulations established during the sanitary and epidemiological examination.
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Pest Control and Plant Disease Control
Plant and animal preparations:
Unfortunately, the food code (Kodex alimentarius) contains preparations obtained from plants that do not grow on the territory of Russia and does not say anything about our plants. Tobacco plants, in view of their strong toxicity, are prohibited in organic farming in Russia. A special article is needed on how plants protect plants.
Animal-based preparations include propolis, gelatin, casein, lecithin, and beeswax. You can use fermented products from watering can (tea) fungus, seaweed and their extracts, chlorella extracts. The list includes chitinous nematicides of natural origin, produced from the shell of crabs (for example, the drug "Narcissus"). You can use natural acids (acetic, citric, oxalic, formic and others).
- Copper in the form of hydroxide, oxychloride (tribasic), sulfate, nitrous oxide, Bordeaux and Burgundy liquids.
- Sulfur for the fight against some diseases (powdery mildew of currants, cabbage keels and others), as well as with mites on fruit and berry crops.
- Mineral powders (stone powder, selicates, bentonite).
- Diatomaceous earth.
- Sodium silicate, sodium bicarbonate, potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate), iron phosphate, slaked lime, quartz sand.
- Mineral oils (except petroleum), based on their preparation No. 30 (liquid paraffin) and paraffin oil.
Microorganism-based drugs used for biological control:
A special article is needed to describe preparations based on microorganisms.
A special publication is also required on the use of beneficial insects and mites raised artificially, used in greenhouses and outdoors.
It is impossible not to take into account the role of natural populations of beneficial insects, spiders, ticks, birds in organic farming, which, under special conditions, can regulate the number of herbivorous pests. For their life, it is necessary to create certain conditions in the field and garden plots.
- Treatment with an electromagnetic field. Such treatment increases the germination of seeds, reduces the development of diseases, and helps to increase the resistance of plants to them.
- Sound (most often high frequency). Helps to repel rodents.
- Steam - used for soil sterilization in greenhouses.
- Ammonium carbonate - used as a repellent for large animals.
- Hydrogen peroxide is used in greenhouses for the prevention of diseases, treatment of hives in beekeeping.
- Mechanical (traps, crushers, suction, etc.).
- Pheromone - using special attractive substances (attractants).
- Glue - (from rodents, insects). Often used in conjunction with color (yellow, blue).
- Homeopathic and Ayurvedic medicines. Some natural substances in low concentrations can have a therapeutic effect, increase the resistance of plants to pests and diseases.
- Carbon dioxide and nitrogen can cause insect anesthesia.
- Potash (green) soap. Effective against aphids.
- Ethyl alcohol - for disinfection of the leaf surface.
- Preparations based on metaldehyde (to combat slugs and snails).
The general regulatory principle for the use of the above means of control in organic farming is their use only in case of an immediate threat of crop loss.
At the same time, all of the listed means of controlling the number of pests and plant diseases must undergo state registration in the Russian Federation in the prescribed manner.
In the next publication, we will consider preparations based on natural microorganisms.