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Video: Canine Viral Infections - Current Guidelines For Treatment And Prevention - 2
2023 Author: Sebastian Paterson | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-24 11:24
The most common diseases in dogs are adenoviral infections, which cause two dangerous diseases - INFECTIOUS HEPATITIS AND ADENOVIROSIS. The causative agents of these diseases are extremely resistant in the external environment. 1. Infectious hepatitis Infectious canine hepatitis (Rubart's disease, viral hepatitis) is a contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus type 1 (ABC-1) and is characterized by inflammatory processes in the liver and gallbladder, sometimes accompanied by impaired activity of the central nervous system. Unlike plague, the disease is transmitted mainly through the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract, although cases of sexual infection and transmission of the virus through the blood (during operations, vaccinations, etc.) have been described. The virus is quite stable - it can persist for several weeks at room temperature. The disease affects dogs of all ages, but puppies are more likely to get sick. The incubation period lasts 3-10 days. The disease is more severe in dogs of large breeds. Be careful - you can bring your dog the virus on clothes, shoes, and hands. Canine infectious hepatitis virus is not dangerous for humans. The source of infection in dogs is adult animals (outwardly completely healthy). The most dangerous are stray animals. Only about 50-60% of dogs are carriers of the virus. A recovered animal can remain a source of infection for 2 years. The transmission of the virus from the carrier and the patient is carried out both through direct contact and through urine, feces, nasal discharge. The disease occurs in both acute and chronic forms, in which dogs can excrete the virus in the urine for more than six months. The disease begins with a rise in temperature to 40-41 ° C, gradually increasing lethargy, severe thirst, decreased appetite, up to a complete rejection of food. Animals quickly lose weight, diarrhea appears, vomiting with an admixture of bile, yellowness of the skin and mucous membranes is noted. The urine is dark brown in color. An additional symptom is keratitis, a whitish opacity of the cornea in one or both eyes. Conjunctivitis and photophobia sometimes develop. Before death, the dog falls into a coma, the temperature drops to 35 ° C. Mortality among young dogs reaches 80%. Recovered dogs, regardless of the severity of the infection, develop long-term, almost lifelong immunity. First aid: do not force feed the dog, give plenty of drink (a weak solution of potassium permanganate, rehydron solution, enterodesis, chamomile decoction). From medicines: fosprenil,gamavitis; from keratitis and conjunctivitis - 0.15% maxidine (eye drops). See your veterinarian for treatment and diet prescription. Prevention: vaccination with Nobivac DHP, Biovac-DPA, dipentavac vaccines. 2. Adenovirosis Adenovirosis (infectious laryngotracheitis) is a viral disease characterized by symptoms of damage to the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. Dogs of all ages are affected. In Japan, the disease is called dry cough disease in dogs. Sometimes adenovirosis, along with other respiratory infections in dogs (see below), is also called "kennel cough". Caused by canine adenovirus type 2. The main source of infection is sick dogs, which excrete the virus in urine, feces, nasal mucus and conjunctival secretions. Infection can occur not only through the mucous membranes of the nasal and oral cavities, but also through sexual contact. With adenovirus, depression, redness of the pharyngeal mucosa, runny nose, dry cough, wheezing in the lungs, may be diarrhea, and sometimes vomiting. The dog is sluggish, appetite is reduced. In the feces, the remains of undigested food. The temperature is normal. Due to the fact that the symptoms of adenovirus are very similar to those of the plague, we recommend that you show the animal to the doctor within 24 hours. First aid consists in a warm, abundant drink, intramuscular injections of fosprenil, maksidin or immunofan, with diarrhea - a starvation diet. Vitakan is indicated in the initial stages of the disease. For diarrhea - polysorb, activated carbon, diarcan. Prevention: vaccination with Nobivac DHP, or domestic vaccines: dipentavac, hexakanivac, Biovac-DPA or RA. Infectious tracheobronchitis Infectious tracheobronchitis, or more precisely, infectious laryngotracheobronchitis (synonyms - nursery cough,kennel cough or dog cough) is an extremely contagious disease of polyetiological nature, caused by Bordetella bronchiseрtica, as well as various viruses (adenoviruses, canine herpesvirus, parainfluenza virus, reoviruses, etc.) and mycoplasmas. Most often, the disease is observed when dogs are crowded in kennels and shelters. The incubation period is usually 3-10 days after infection. Symptoms: acute attacks of dry cough, sometimes paroxysmal, especially after physical exertion. In severe cases - the urge to vomit, sometimes serous and mucous discharge from the nose, rarely - a rise in temperature and anorexia. As a rule, clinical symptoms disappear after 1-3 weeks and the animals recover. A complication in the form of bronchopneumonia is possible. Treatment: fosprenil with maxidine, gamavit; for suspected B.bronchiseрtica - tetracycline antibiotics. Prevention: there is no vaccine against all possible pathogens, but vaccination against adenoviroses with vaccines such as Nobivac DHP and others gives a good effect.