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Video: Types Of Green Fences And Propagation Of Evergreens
Read the previous part. ← Caring for plants in a green fence, pruning, watering, diseases
Reproduction of evergreens
Generative reproduction. Propagating plants by sowing seeds is the cheapest way. It is effective when it is necessary to obtain a significant amount of daughter plants.
Plants grown from seeds are more hardy than those grown vegetatively. Removing the fruits of ornamental crops at the right time and getting seeds with good germination is far from easy. This requires both knowledge and experience.
Harvest the fruits in time - not all of them yet. The seeds must be husked and cleaned. In some species, this is done quite simply, while in others, on the contrary, it is very laborious work.
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Placing seeds for storage also requires some skill. Some seeds do not tolerate long-term storage in a dry environment; they dry out, as a result of which they take longer to germinate. Seeds are known that germinate only 2-3 years after harvest.
Often they are subjected to pre-sowing treatment, for example, stratification, treatment with heat, hot or even boiling water, the peel is mechanically disturbed, impregnated with a special composition, etc. Seeds prepared accordingly are sown at home in a variety of containers, previously disinfected.
A thick layer of drainage is usually poured at the bottom of the container, then supplemented with high-quality compost or a special substrate. The sowing container is transferred to a cold place for a while: it is left to lie down quietly there. In some cases, it is helpful to let the seeds freeze and then transfer them to a greenhouse or greenhouse, under glass.
Crops require care, and therefore it is necessary to loosen the soil, remove weeds, cover the seedlings from strong sunlight, etc. In the winter months, they must be protected from frost, and the seedlings must be hardened before planting in the ground. Only then can they be transplanted into the nursery in rows, at a certain distance from each other.
Vegetative reproduction. It is possible to propagate trees vegetatively directly and indirectly using several methods. One of the simplest direct methods is dividing the bush and propagating with the help of young root shoots. It can be used in species that spontaneously form roots at the base of shoots or produce root shoots.
Such plants, taken out of the ground, must be torn or cut into pieces, after which the weaker ones can be placed in the nursery, and the stronger ones - right in the place designated for planting. The breeding method is rarely used by high hilling. A pile of earth is shoveled around the mother plant. This procedure is recommended in the spring, when the annual shoots have reached the required height. Later one or two more times it is necessary to close the ground so that more "floors" of young roots are formed. In the fall or next spring, the land is harvested, and the young plants are cut off. For the winter, the mother plant must be slightly huddled again.
Another way of direct propagation is by layering. The shoot is not separated from the mother plant until it is sufficiently rooted. This operation is carried out in various ways. One of them is the laying of individual annual branches in the spring in a groove dug nearby, where the branches are fixed, and after new young shoots are pulled, the mother branches are sprinkled with earth.
A certain number of young daughter plants are ready in autumn. The simplest method is arched rooting. To do this, you need to choose an annual, in extreme cases, two-year-old shoots from the plant, breaking the top, take it to the side in the form of a low arch. Then the broken part at the end of the shoot is immersed in the ground, forming an acute angle so that the branch rests against the edge of the groove or groove. After the end of the shoot, they are well covered with earth.
In the fall, the rooted shoot can be cut off from the mother plant and dug up. There are a number of other rooting methods - undulating, serpentine, or Chinese, by immersion, used to propagate trees with long springy shoots, especially in climbing plants. The most commonly used direct propagation method is cuttings.
Deciduous deciduous trees can, for example, be propagated by soft spring and summer cuttings as well as hard (woody) and root cuttings. Conifers reproduce well when ripe, but not hard cuttings. The correct technique must be followed during this operation. You should know what material is best for propagating this tree species.
For the fastest rooting of cuttings, various preparations are used - growth stimulants. As for the premises, a greenhouse, and a greenhouse, and a cover made of plastic film, etc. are suitable for these purposes. Cuttings are placed in a substrate intended for plant propagation or in peat and plastic pots filled with an appropriate mixture. Young planting stock must be carefully looked after. In order to cope well with the difficult task of multiplying a particular tree species, it is necessary to study the special literature in advance.
In addition to direct vegetative reproduction, there is also an indirect one, i.e. graft propagation. It is used in those species and varieties that are impossible or very difficult to propagate in other ways. The bottom line is to connect the scion or peephole to the stock. Such a connection can be carried out by joining (copulation), in a simple way or reed, behind the bark, on a “goat's” leg, etc. Great attention should be paid to the choice of scion and rootstock. Only with strict adherence to technology can such reproduction be successful.
However, most amateur gardeners prefer to purchase young woody plants grown in tree nurseries, which can quickly decorate any garden.
Types of green fences
A molded fence is a traditional type of trimmed living fence with dense foliage and flat surfaces. Such a fence can be decorated with flowers or fruits, but it is usually grown to create an impenetrable screen. Cypress trees are suitable for a molded fence.
The fast growing cypress has become very popular as a living fence. In five years, it can grow up to three meters. In the early years, plants need to be tied up and trimmed regularly. One of the yew varieties is also suitable for such a fence. Yew is cut in August. Along with the traditional dark green varieties, there are varieties with bright yellow leaves. Yew grows more slowly than some other plants. Water liberally after planting.
Thuja folded is also suitable, it is recommended to grow it if you want to have a fence made of plants similar to cypress, but relatively slow-growing. They cut their hair in August.
Types of plants for creating shaped fences
Cypress Fletcheri has a crown shape similar to Elwoodii, but grows faster and is more suitable for living fences. Allumii has a tapered crown - this blue-gray cypress variety is often used for live harvesting.
Holly grows slowly at first, but over time forms a very dense impenetrable fence. Green varieties grow in the shade, variegated plants need sun. Plants are cut at the end of summer.
By privet many are treated with contempt, but it is growing rapidly, it is unpretentious and does not fear cold weather. Plant one of the varieties - oval-leaved privet. After planting, the plants are heavily pruned.
The yew has bright yellow leaves along with the traditional dark green varieties. Yew grows more slowly than some other plants, but not as slowly as is often thought. They cut their hair at the end of summer.
Thuja folded is recommended to grow if you want to have a fence made of plants similar to cypress, but growing relatively slowly. Cut in August.
An unshaped fence is a fence made of flowering or fruiting plants that retain their natural shape. Such a fence is not regularly pruned. It provides some protection from prying eyes. For an unshaped fence, a rhododendron is suitable, with large oval leaves and light purple flowers, from which you can create a tall, sprawling living fence on a large area with acidic soil. Cut immediately after flowering.
Types of plants for creating unshaped fences
The narrow-leaved barberry, Darwin's barberry and Juliana's barberry make excellent living fences. Cut them after they have faded. The spiny stems of the barberries provide some protection to the site.
Escallonia grandiflora carries the sea air and is therefore often grown in coastal areas. Rooted plants grow quickly. After the first flowering in June, the fence is sheared to induce a second wave of flowering.
In a living fence, you can grow pyracantha, usually for these purposes, Rogers pyracantha is recommended. It is grown for fruit - shorten the shoots in August so that the fruits are better visible.
From Pontic rhododendron with large oval leaves and light purple flowers, you can create a tall, sprawling living fence on a large area with acidic soil. The plant is cut immediately after flowering.
Undersized fence. Serves for framing flower beds and borders. Plants in such a fence are regularly cut at a height of 1 m or less, giving it a certain shape; an unformed fence can also be created from low-growing plants. For a short fence, boxwood is suitable.
Types of plants for decorating undersized fences
Boxwood evergreen - a favorite plant for low-growing fences grows slowly and does not require rich soil. Cut in July or August.
Spike lavender, as well as boxwood has long been used to create low-growing fences. After flowering, the peduncles are removed; shoots are still cut in April.
In landscaped gardens, the living fences surrounding the site have become more picturesque. In landscaping, the following gradation of living shrub fences is adopted:
- high fences (2.5-3 m);
- medium fences (1.5–2 m) and low;
- or curbs - up to 1 m;
- plantings above 3 m with the participation of trees are called green walls.
Composition of evergreen plants
First of all, it is necessary to determine the type of future landscape composition. Landscape composition is a construction on a free combination of plants that have the correct geometric or symmetrical composition. If the first type is associated with a natural landscape and is suitable for decorating almost any zone, then the appearance of plantings of the second type in the garden requires a certain semantic load. Regular groups of coniferous or deciduous species can emphasize the ceremonial character of the main entrance by arranging the so-called green gate, or arrange the compositional center of a parterre flower garden. They are also good in combination with small architectural forms or facades of houses in the classical style. The following groups are distinguished by size:
- Small groups of 2-4 plants.
- Medium groups - 5-7 plants.
- Large groups of 8-15 plants.
- If there are more than 15 trees in a group, it is called a curtain.
In medium and large groups, the core of the composition and the outer contour are distinguished. The largest and most beautiful trees are chosen as the kernel, and tall and low shrubs are often used to create the outer contour. This combination helps to quickly get a decorative effect - after all, shrubs reach their greatest decorativeness by the third or fifth year of life, while trees will give a spectacular picture only 10–20 years after planting. According to the structure, the groups are divided:
- compact groups (dense);
- loose groups (openwork).
As an example of a compact group, let's call such an exquisite technique as a bouquet planting, when several specimens of the same breed are planted in one pit. Let's say you have decided on the type and approximate size (respectively, and the number of specimens) of the future tree and shrub group. Now it's up to the specific breeds. Plants are usually arranged according to the following principles.
Plant layout principles
The typological principle assumes the use of different types of trees and shrubs suitable for joint growth. The core of the composition can be light-loving species (larch, birch), and shade-tolerant trees and shrubs (spruce, cotoneaster) undergrowth. By imitating nature, you will achieve a natural fit.
The systematic principle is based on the use of representatives of different species of the same genus in one group, which creates a certain artistic unity. You can make a group of spirits with different flowering times. Such a picture will retain its decorative effect from spring to autumn. You can plant different forms of western thuja or junipers in a group - tall columnar plants will create a bright contrast with the open and dwarf forms. This plant selection principle is especially suitable for beginners in garden design.
The physiognomic principle is based on a combination of the appearance of various plants, taking into account the seasonal and age dynamics of their development. Perhaps this is the most difficult of the listed layout methods, requiring the compiler to know the timing of flowering of each plant, the peculiarities of the autumn color of the foliage, and fruiting. But it is he who allows you to achieve the greatest decorative effect.
The minimum distance of trees in groups between trees, especially when planting small-sized seedlings, is one meter. The maximum is equal to the diameter of the crown - this is usually three to five meters. If the projected group consists of three trees, they are usually planted at the vertices of an equilateral triangle, of five at the corners of an irregular quadrangle and one in the center. When creating a composition of trees and shrubs, try to favorably set off the advantages of each plant.
For example, if you plan to use variegated and red-leaved trees and shrubs, it is better to place them in the foreground (along the outer contour) against the background of uniform, dense greenery of the main plantings. And the smooth transition from trees to lawn will help create perennials planted here. Having formed the lower tier of a group of such plants as hosts, irises, peonies, you will give the whole composition integrity and completeness.
The plant that defines the architectural appearance of the garden attracts attention in itself and serves as a focal point. An accent plant is designed to draw attention to a nearby building, another plant, or a group of plants. No matter what role they play, single trees and shrubs are extremely important to every garden.