Table of contents:
Video: What Vitamins Vegetables Provide Us With
← Read the previous part of the article
Eat to your health. Part 3
Vegetables and fruits are the main source of vitamins. In plants, they are part of enzymes and hormones, enhance photosynthesis, respiration, nitrogen assimilation, the formation of amino acids and their outflow from leaves. In the human body, they serve as catalysts for biochemical reactions and regulators of the main physiological processes: metabolism, growth and reproduction. Various types of vitamin deficiency in humans lead to the fact that the appearance of his skin becomes unhealthy.
Vitamin A (retinol, provitamin A - carotene) is a beauty vitamin. It participates in the processes of vision, therefore it is necessary for normal light perception. This vitamin is necessary for the normal growth of bones and tissues, it strengthens the skin and mucous membranes.
Vitamin A is essential for maintaining the integrity of epithelial cells. It enhances immunity, increases the phagocytic activity of leukocytes and other factors of the body's nonspecific resistance. It also performs protective functions, preventing the emergence and growth of cancer cells, as well as the development of diseases of the heart and blood vessels. In the genital tract, vitamin A is an essential factor in sperm production and egg development.
With its lack, the hair loses its shine, breaks, keratinization of the hair follicles is observed. The skin peels off and becomes pale, greyish-earthy, dry. Acne, boils are formed, wounds heal slowly. A person develops “night blindness”. He sees poorly at dusk, his sensitivity to blue and yellow colors deteriorates and his visual acuity decreases. In the morning, droplets of a whitish substance collect in the corners of the eyes. There is a tendency to pustular diseases, conjunctivitis, photophobia. With a lack of this vitamin, the nails become brittle and streaked, and grow slowly. In the body, there is a decrease in appetite, weak salivation, emaciation, rapid fatigue, increased susceptibility to diseases, especially colds and infections of the gastrointestinal tract,there are diseases of the urinary tract, the formation of stones. Its deficiency can lead to infertility.
Carotenoids are powerful antioxidants in the body that give foods a red to orange color. They are rich in carrots, tomatoes, red peppers. By the degree of color of vegetables and fruits, one can judge the content of provitamin A. Lycopene, a substance found in carotenoids, has a strong anticancer effect; it works especially effectively in the prevention of prostate and uterine cancer. In addition, lycopene prevents cardiovascular disease and lowers "bad cholesterol" levels.
Doctors recommend vitamin A for hypo- and avitaminosis A, infectious diseases, diseases of the skin, eyes, rickets, malnutrition, acute respiratory diseases, chronic broncho-pulmonary diseases, erosive and ulcerative and inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, liver cirrhosis, epithelial tumors and leukemia, mastopathy.
For adults, the recommended dose is 800-1000 mcg per day (or about 3000-3500 IU). It should be remembered that retinol and lycopene are not recommended for long-term use in high doses. With an excess of vitamin A in the body, weakness, headache with nausea and vomiting, pain in the abdomen, joints, night sweats, hair loss, enlarged liver and spleen, cracks in the corners of the mouth, irritability, itching all over the body are observed.
Vitamin B 1 (thiamine) plays an important role in the metabolism, primarily of carbohydrates, in their conversion to fats; has a positive effect on the nervous system and mental abilities, for which it is called “the vitamin of pep”. It is necessary for the normal functioning of the cardiovascular and endocrine systems. It is a necessary coenzyme in the assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats during energy production; provides the body with the energy to convert carbohydrates into glucose for the embryonic development of the fetus. Vitamin B 1normalizes the acidity of the stomach and intestinal motor activity, increases the body's resistance to infections and unfavorable environmental factors. It reduces toothache after dental surgery. It helps the body to cope more easily with motion sickness and motion sickness in flight. Thiamine helps heal shingles.
With a lack of thiamine, a gradual loss of appetite occurs, nausea, constipation, tingling in the arms and legs, muscle weakness, soreness of the calf muscles, swelling of the arms and legs; marked palpitations and heart rhythm disturbances, arterial hypotension, shortness of breath even with insignificant muscular exertion, rapid physical and mental fatigue, nervousness, headaches, depression, inattention, memory impairment, poor sleep, weight loss. With a complete deficiency of this vitamin, beriberi disease develops.
Thiamine is recommended for hypo- and avitaminosis of vitamin B 1, diseases of the respiratory system, nervous system, atherosclerosis, rheumatic heart disease, gastritis, viral hepatitis, poisoning and intoxication, polyneuropathy, starvation, chronic alcoholism, thyrotoxicosis, neuritis, radicresis or paradisiac disease, dermatoses, lichen, psoriasis, eczema.
For adults, 1.5-2 mg of this vitamin per day is recommended. However, the need for thiamine increases during illness, especially with gastrointestinal disorders, diabetes, stress and surgery, antibiotic treatment, as well as high-carbon nutrition, with neuropsychiatric stress, with hard physical work, in cold conditions.
Signs of excess of this vitamin in the form of tremors, herpes, edema, nervousness, and allergic reactions are rarely noted.
Vitamin B 2 (riboflavin) is part of enzymes that transfer of hydrogen to oxygen dehydrogenases; promotes the intensification of metabolic processes, the breakdown and assimilation of fats, carbohydrates and proteins by the body. It is necessary for the synthesis of corticosteroids, red blood cells and glycogen, stimulates cell division and growth processes, prevents damage to the skin, mucous membranes, accelerates wound healing, protects the retina from excessive exposure to ultraviolet rays. Together with vitamin A, riboflavin plays an important role in the maintenance of normal visual function, ensuring normal vision (high-quality acuity of perception of light and color). This vitamin has a positive effect on liver function, is important for the normal development of the fetus during pregnancy, and is essential for the growth of children.
Doctors recommend it for hypo- and vitamin B 2 deficiency, hemeralopia, conjunctivitis, influenza, keratitis, for long-term non-healing wounds and ulcers, fractures, radiation sickness, eczema, viral hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, asthenia, functional disorders of the central nervous system (poor sleep, nervousness, irritability, increased excitability, instability of the psyche), cheilitis, angular stomatitis (seizures), glossitis, neurodermatitis, seborrhea, redheads, candidiasis, dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract, organ hypertrophy, anemia, leukemia, visual impairment.
Signs of riboflavin deficiency in the body are: depression, dizziness, trembling of the limbs, poor sleep, dry, bright red, inflamed tongue, small cracks and crusts in the corners of the mouth, a sore feeling in the eyes, dilated pupils, conjunctivitis, blepharitis (inflammation of the eyelids) and increased photosensitivity … With its lack, dryness and blueness of the lips, vertical cracks and scars on the hands (cheilosis), oily skin, peeling of the skin on the face, dermatitis, focal hair loss, itching and inflammation of the skin of the external genital organs are noticeable.
The daily dose of vitamin B 2 for adults is 1.2-2.5 mg. During the use of contraception, pregnancy, breastfeeding, in stressful situations, the need for vitamin increases.
With an excess of riboflavin in the body, itching, numbness, burning or tingling sensations are rarely observed.
Vitamin B 3 (nicotinic acid, niacin, vitamin PP) is a part of the enzymes involved in the processes of respiration, it stimulates the work of the digestive system, improves carbohydrate metabolism, accelerates the formation of amino acids, lowers cholesterol, has a vasodilating effect, regulates redox processes and the work of the nervous system. This vitamin reduces the craving for alcohol and normalizes the physical condition of the body. It is indispensable for the synthesis of sex hormones, as well as cortisone, thyroxine and insulin.
With its lack, fatigue, depression, and muscle weakness are observed. The tongue is coated with a coating, it is furrowed or dry, bright red, painful, cracked. Skin changes appear: dryness and pallor of the lips, sensitivity of the gums, the skin on the back of the hands, neck, chest, back of the feet turns red sharply, the skin peels off. Neurasthenic syndrome appears (headaches, irritability, insomnia). Weight loss, lack of appetite, heartburn, nausea, possible latent diabetes, inflammatory processes in the intestines, ulcers of the gastrointestinal tract, constipation or diarrhea without mucus and blood are observed. With full vitamin deficiency, pellagra develops.
Doctors recommend this vitamin for hypovitaminosis, pellagra, cirrhosis of the liver, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, enterocolitis and colitis, spasms of peripheral arteries, atherosclerosis, neuritis of the facial nerve, long-term non-healing wounds and ulcers.
The daily intake of this drug for adults is 15-20 mg. However, for those taking hormonal contraceptives or sleeping pills, the dose must be increased.
Excess vitamin B 3 (PP) causes redness, burning and itching of the skin (especially on the face and upper body), irregular heart rhythms and various gastrointestinal disorders.
To be continued →
Read the Eat for Health serie
- Nutritional value of vegetables
- Minerals in vegetables and fruits that are essential for health
- What vitamins vegetables provide us with
- What vitamins vegetables provide us with. Continuation
- Vitamin content in plant foods
- The content of vitamins, enzymes, organic acids, phytoncides in vegetables
- The value of vegetables in nutritional care, vegetable diets
- Vegetable diets for various diseases