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Video: Tarragon Wormwood And Medicinal Wormwood
They say wormwood is a bitter herb. This is so, but not all. According to legend, it was a part of ambrosia, in the view of the ancient Greeks - the food of the gods, which contained nectar, therefore, it had to be fragrant, slightly spicy, but not bitter.
This idea was reflected in the Latin generic name for wormwood - they were dedicated to the Greek goddess of the hunt, Artemis, whose name arose from the ancient Greek word - artemes - healthy. The Russian name did not arise from the word "field" at all, but came from the words "fire" (flame), "scorch" (in the sense to burn), and was given to plants for their scorching, burning bitter taste. Wormwood belongs to the subfamily of Asteraceae of the Asteraceae family. There are more than 400 species of them in the world, but only 14 grows in Central Russia, and even less in the Leningrad Region - only 7.
And only four wormwood can interest gardeners as spicy aromatic plants. Some of them are cultivated or are in the stage of domestication, while others are asked to be cultured. So, although it is said that wormwood is a bitter herb, however, the most promising spices are those that have a strong aroma, but in which, with rare exceptions, the bitterness inherent in this genus is weakened.
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All the species of wormwood under consideration are in many respects externally similar - they are perennial herbaceous, up to 125-150 cm tall, branching shrubs of the Asteraceae family (Compositae) with a powerful woody branched rhizome; pinnately separate lower and whole lanceolate upper leaves. Let's consider these types.
Synonyms - tarragon, tarragon, dragoon grass, etc. (Artemisia dracunculus L.) - the most famous of the spicy wormwood. Many gardeners do not even suspect that this spicy herb is a real wormwood. Her homeland is South Siberia. In the wild, it is found throughout the southern half of Russia to the Far East. Grows along river banks, in low areas of the steppe, meadows, fallow lands. It has been known as a spicy aromatic plant for a long time, from the first centuries of our era, it was introduced into culture in Syria. It is possible that it was she, in the minds of the ancient Greeks, that was an integral part of ambrosia. It is widely cultivated in Europe, the USA, very much loved in the Caucasus. Grown in Russia since the 19th century.
The height of the bush is up to one and a half meters. The flowers are small, whitish or yellowish, collected in small, but numerous baskets. It is not found in nature in the North-West, but it grows well in culture. Differs in drought resistance and winter hardiness, withstands frosts down to -30 ° C. Does not freeze even in winters with little snow. It tolerates spring and autumn frosts well. Tarragon wormwood is demanding on light.
Loves loose, fertile, humus-rich, especially carbonate, soil, but the content of essential oil when grown in such conditions decreases. The soil should be fresh, but not waterlogged, it does not tolerate excessive moisture. The groundwater level should be no closer than 1 m. Planting begins at the end of April. Leaves, except for the lowest ones, are linear-lanceolate. The flowers are whitish or yellowish, in spherical baskets, collected in narrow dense paniculate inflorescences. Blooms, depending on the shape and variety, 70-140 days after the start of the growing season.
In nature, it mainly reproduces by seeds, they are very small, 1000 pieces weigh 0.2-0.3 g, remain viable for 3-4 years, do not ripen in our zone. However, this is rather an advantage than a disadvantage, since during seed reproduction in plants, the aroma weakens, and bitterness appears and increases. Wild forms are less tasty and less fruitful.
In culture, in order to preserve positive varietal properties, tarragon is usually propagated vegetatively - by pieces of rhizomes, root suckers, dividing a bush, green cuttings; the latter two are preferred. Cuttings are cut in mid-June 10-15 cm long and rooted in dive boxes or on ridges in a loose soil mixture of humus, peat and sand (1: 1: 0.25), and then covered with polyethylene. The first time is watered 2-3 times a day, the temperature is maintained at 15-17 ° C, periodically ventilated. Rooting takes place after two weeks. In the first decade of August, they are planted in place and watered abundantly.
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The landing site is pre-fertilized. Tarragon is placed according to the 60x60 or 50x70 scheme, it can be even denser - 40x40 cm, but if you do not grow it for sale, then for one family it is enough to have one or two bushes. Care - top dressing with complex mineral fertilizer, 3-4 cultivation of row spacings, 2-3 weeding in rows, watering as needed. Top dressing of adult plants consists in adding 3-4 kg of humus or compost, 2-3 tablespoons of ash and 1 tablespoon of complex mineral fertilizer under each bush annually; but does not like an excess of organic fertilizers, reduces aroma. The bushes are watered abundantly, usually every 10-12 days.
It can grow in one place for up to 15 years, but as a spicy aromatic culture it is advisable to keep it for no more than 4-5 years, since, despite the high green mass, the quality of the latter in old bushes decreases; it gets rougher.
Leaves and non-lignified shoots are used as a spice. They have a pungent spicy taste and are almost devoid of the bitterness characteristic of almost all wormwood, their aroma resembles the smell of anise. Cutting greens in annual plants is carried out once in August, in perennials - three to four cuts per season, at a level of 10-15 cm from the soil. It starts when the plants reach a height of 20-25 cm. The plant is high-vitamin - it contains vitamin C - 70 mg%, carotene - 8.6, rutin - 170 mg%; as well as trace elements: copper, magnesium, cobalt. Fresh herbs contain from 0.1 to 0.5% aromatic tarragon oil (dry 1.65%).
Tarragon is a good preservative, therefore it is widely used in the food and canning industry. On its basis the drinks "Baikal" and "Tarhun" are made, it is a part of various spice mixtures, some varieties of mustard. Fresh leaves are used as a snack or a side dish for meat, fish and egg dishes; put in sauces, soups, salads, in some types of cheese. Tarragon greens go well with lemon juice. It is used for salting cucumbers, tomatoes, zucchini, mushrooms, soaking apples, etc. Vinegar is infused on it. Leaves can be dried for future use for the winter. Fresh herbs are put into a dish just before serving, dried herbs - 1-2 minutes before being ready. Rhizomes harvested in autumn can be used for forcing in winter. Tarragon grows well in a pot as a houseplant.
It has a wide range of medicinal properties: it is used for tuberculosis, pneumonia, bronchitis, neurasthenia, as a tonic, diuretic, laxative, antiscorbutic, antipyretic, stimulating appetite and improving digestion. It also has antihelminthic, vaso-strengthening, antioxidant and antitumor properties, and is indicated in the treatment of gastritis. The decoction and tincture show bactericidal and fungicidal activity.
Tarragon wormwood varieties
There are not many varieties of tarragon in our country, and in the world: Gribovsky 31, Russian, Yerevan, Georgian, Nezhinsky, German aromatic, Zhulebinsky Semko (new variety), French; the latter is especially aromatic. There are not many diseases and pests - it is affected by rust (especially with an excess of nitrogen and thickening); aphids, pennitsa leafhoppers, which suck juices from young shoots.
Artemisia abrotanum L., synonyms - medicinal, shrub, abrotanum, god tree, lemon. The latter synonym sometimes leads to a well-known confusion, since a species of wormwood grows in Turkmenistan, which already has an official name - lemon. Healing wormwood is the most fragrant and soft type of wormwood. It grows wild in the steppe and forest-steppe zones of the European part and Western Siberia of our country.
It grows along river banks, in meadows, pastures, glades, forest edges. Introduced into cultivation, but there are no zoned varieties. In the Leningrad Region, this is an invasive plant, it is found in the wild, or rather, in a feral state in gardens and parks, very rarely. Even in the culture in the North-West it is not widespread, although it is a very promising spice-aromatic and decorative culture. Stems are straight, lignified at the base.
Healing wormwood is thermophilic, the growing season is very long, about 200 days, therefore, in the conditions of the North-West, it not only does not have time to bear fruit, but even bloom (just pick up the buds). This phenomenon also has a positive side - since seeds are not formed, this wormwood in our zone cannot become a weed.
Being winter-hardy, it is not damaged by frost. Her vegetation begins at the end of April and lasts until the very frost. Medicinal wormwood has been grown in one place for more than 10 years. The soil loves fertile, rich in nutrients. In nature, it mainly reproduces by seeds. But in culture, it is mainly propagated vegetatively: by green cuttings and arcuate layers, which are fixed in May and sprinkled with loose earth. By the end of the summer, they take root.
Cutting is identical to that of tarragon. In the first decade of August, the rooted seedlings are planted in a permanent place and watered abundantly. The landing site is fertilized before planting. Further cares - weeding, loosening the soil, watering as needed. As a spice, it is harvested before budding, and as a medicinal raw material - during budding, cutting off the apical shoots at a height of 40-45 cm from the ground. Dry in the shade. Raw materials are stored in tightly sealed boxes. The roots are dug up in late autumn.
Leaves and young shoots have a strong, pungent and pleasant spicy citrus aroma, almost devoid of bitterness, but when dried, it disappears completely. They are used in the alcoholic beverage industry in the manufacture of vermouths, liqueurs, soft drinks; used as a spice in cooking. Fresh young tops are put in salads, sauces, soups, meat, poultry, marinades, vinegar; occasionally in cottage cheese and mayonnaise. They also put it in confectionery: muffins, gingerbread cookies, pies, in some types of bread. It should be remembered that healing wormwood, like other types of wormwood, should be eaten in very small doses.
In folk medicine, a decoction and infusion of wormwood is used very widely: for intracerebral hemorrhage, convulsions, shortness of breath, tachycardia, angina pectoris, gastrointestinal and infectious diseases, fever, acute respiratory infections, rheumatism, dizziness, tinnitus, toothache, sciatica, female and kidney diseases, as a wound healing agent for burns, frostbite, furunculosis, sore throat, skin diseases, as a diaphoretic, diuretic, tonic and tonic.
Roots and rhizomes are used for epilepsy and tuberculous meningitis. In homeopathy, this type of wormwood is used for exudative pleurisy, tuberculosis of the lymph nodes, anemia, scrofula, gout, hemorrhoids, as an appetite stimulant and anthelmintic agent. It is also used in perfumery, it is used to flavor clothes and repel moths, as well as other insects. Very decorative, so one or two plants will not only decorate your garden, but also serve well for the other purposes listed above.
Wormwood and common wormwood