Table of contents:
- White "sails" of flowers and luscious green leaves of this plant will decorate any room or office
- Spathiphyllum spread
- Types of spathiphyllum
- Conditions for keeping spathiphyllum
- Reproduction of spathiphyllum
Video: Spathiphyllum - "female Happiness"
White "sails" of flowers and luscious green leaves of this plant will decorate any room or office
My first acquaintance with spathiphyllum took place when the director gave my mother a huge bush of this plant. Spathiphyllum was amazingly beautiful! Most surprisingly, the plant reacted sensitively to changes in the health or mood of the mother. If something was not as usual, the spathiphyllum dropped its leaves. But as soon as my mother spoke to him affectionately, he raised the leaves again. Perhaps it is thanks to this feature that the spathiphyllum was popularly called "female happiness"? Features of culture
Plant of the genus Spathiphyllum (Spathiphyllum) belong to the family Araceae (Araceae). The genus spathiphyllum was first described in 1832 by the Austrian botanist Heinrich Wilhelm Schott.
Spathiphyllums (from the Greek "spatha" - cover and "phyllon" - leaf) are perennial herbaceous evergreen plants 20-120 cm high, stemless or with short stems and a short rhizome. Leaves are oblong-lanceolate, pointed to the top, bright green, shiny, on long petioles, collected in a basal rosette. The edges of the leaf blade are smooth or wavy. The length of the leaf blade is 10-30 cm and the width is 3-10 cm, depending on the species.
The peduncle of the spathiphyllum is erect, 25-30 cm long, with an inflorescence-cob, on which small nondescript white-cream or greenish-yellow flowers, almost odorless, are located devoid of bracts. The ear has an oblong-elliptical sail-cover (simple membranous perianth) 5-13 cm long, which, depending on the type of plant, can be white, greenish-white or cream. As a rule, the length of the coverlet is 2-3 times the length of the cob. When wilting, the color of the bedspread gradually changes - at first it turns green, then it becomes dirty brown. If there is no need to obtain seeds, then you can cut off the wilted flower arrow, as it reduces the decorative effect of the plant.
The fruit of spathiphyllum is a green berry with small, smooth seeds that have a curved shape.
Under natural conditions, spathiphyllum grows in regions with tropical and subtropical humid climates: in Central and South America, in Equatorial and South Africa, in some areas of Asia, Polynesia, on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus and others. Most of the species grows in America, only three species are found outside its borders.
Types of spathiphyllum
According to various estimates, the number of spathiphyllum species ranges from 36-50 species. In indoor floriculture, the following types are common: spathiphyllum of Wallis (Willis) (S. Wallisii), spathiphyllum cannoli (S. cannifolium), spathiphyllum profusely flowering (S. Floribundum), spathiphyllum heliconiophyllum (S. Heliconiifolium), S. spathiphyllum (lovely) spathiphyllum spoon-shaped (S. Cochlearispathum) and others. All of the above species differ in plant size, shape, size and color of the bedspread and cob.
Conditions for keeping spathiphyllum
Illumination and temperature conditions
Spathiphyllum is a thermophilic shade-tolerant plant, so you need to choose a place for it, illuminated by indirect sunlight, protected from drafts. As practice has shown, spathiphyllum grows well in partial shade under artificial lighting. Since the plant is adversely affected by combustion products of the gas, it is not recommended to place it in the kitchen. The optimum air temperature for spathiphyllum is + 18… + 25 ° C. The admissible temperature range is + 10… + 30 ° C. It should be noted that this plant does not tolerate sharp temperature fluctuations. If the air temperature is kept constant at + 20… + 25 ° C throughout the year, the plant may not fall into a dormant state.
Soil, watering regime and air humidity
Spathiphyllum is a moisture-loving plant, so you need to water it regularly and spray it with soft, settled water at room temperature. The potting soil in the flower pot should always be moderately moist. During the active growing season, watering is abundant; during the rest period, watering should be slightly reduced. If the air temperature in the room does not drop during winter, you can maintain the normal watering regime.
Drying and waterlogging of the soil must not be allowed. The flowerpot for planting spathiphyllum must have good drainage, as stagnant water can lead to the death of the plant. With insufficient watering and low air humidity, spathiphyllum will lose its decorative appearance, the tips of its leaves will dry out. Spathiphyllum needs high relative humidity, which can be maintained by regular spraying. Usually in the spring-summer period, I spray the plant twice a day, and in the autumn-winter period - once a day. It is also necessary to periodically wipe the leaves with a soft, damp sponge to remove dirt. You can place a pot with a plant on a pallet with wet sphagnum or expanded clay.
It is carried out as needed, usually once every 2-3 years - in the spring. Spathiphyllum does not need to be transplanted into a very large pot to achieve abundant flowering. A new pot is perfect, which will be 2-3 cm larger than the previous one. The soil mixture for planting spathiphyllum should be loose, moisture and air permeable and have a slightly acidic reaction (pH 5-6.5). It should include the following components: leaf, turf, coniferous soil, peat, humus, river sand in approximately equal proportions. You can add some charcoal. As a rule, for planting spathiphyllum, I use a ready-made mixture for plants of the aroid family.
Top dressing with fertilizers
In the spring-summer period, spathiphyllum needs to be fed once every 7-14 days with complex water-soluble fertilizers for flowering indoor plants. In the autumn-winter period, the frequency of fertilization is once every 14-20 days. If spathiphyllum blooms in winter, you can maintain the summer frequency of fertilization.
Reproduction of spathiphyllum
This plant propagates by dividing the bush or seeds. The best time to breed is spring and autumn (but you can do this throughout the year). To do this, when transplanting spathiphyllum, it is necessary to carefully, so as not to damage the roots, to divide the bush into parts, each of which should have its own growing point and several leaves. The separated parts of the plant should be planted in small pots, placed in a warm place, watered abundantly and sprayed regularly. With proper care, young spathiphyllums can bloom in 6-12 months. In addition to vegetative propagation by dividing the bush, propagation by seeds is also possible. Unfortunately, I have not yet managed to grow the plant in this way.
Possible problems that flower growers may encounter when growing spathiphyllum are shown in the table.
|one||Blackened or brown leaf tips, brown or dark spots on the leaves||Over-watering at low temperatures. Excess nutrients||Compliance with the watering regime and temperature regime. Temporary suspension of fertilization|
|2||Dry, yellowed tips and edges of leaves||Insufficient watering, low air humidity, lack of nutrients in the soil or their excess||Increasing air humidity, regular spraying (at least 2 times a day), fertilization|
|3||Drooping or withered foliage||Sudden temperature changes, insufficient or excessive watering||Compliance with the temperature regime. Compliance with the watering regime|
|4||Lack of flowering||Lack of nutrients or too large a pot. Non-compliance with the rest regime||Regular fertilization. Transplant into a cramped and low pot. In the autumn-winter period, place the plant for 2-3 weeks in a room with a low air temperature|
|five||Slow growth||Excessive illumination and waterlogging of the soil||Compliance with the light regime (move the plant to a darker place). Watering as the soil dries|
|6||Dark green elongated leaves||Insufficient illumination||Compliance with the light regime: moving the flower pot to a new bright place or supplementary lighting|
|7||Pests (attack weakened plants)||Non-compliance with the watering regime, low air humidity, lack of nutrients||For prevention - frequent spraying with water and regular fertilization. If pests are found, treat with insecticides|
Spathiphyllum is an ideal houseplant, distinguished by its unpretentiousness and high decorative effect. In addition, spathiphyllum cleans the indoor air from various harmful substances (benzene, aldehydes, etc.).
When favorable conditions are created, spathiphyllum can bloom throughout the year. The plant can be grown in mixed plantings, it tolerates well being adjacent to other plants. Some flower growers display next to spathiphyllum, popularly called "female happiness", and Andre's anthurium, which looks a bit like spathiphyllum. It has red flowers, and some growers call it "male happiness". It turns out very unusual and beautiful. By the way, cut spathiphyllum flowers do not fade for a long time, they can be used to create flower arrangements.
Photo by Olga Rubtsova