Table of contents:
Video: How To Grow A Sansevier
What conditions must be provided for the sansevier so that it blooms
- Distribution of sansevier
- Description of the plant
- Types of sansevier
- Sansevier conditions
- Illumination and temperature conditions
- Soil, watering regime and air humidity
- Top dressing with fertilizers
One of my favorite indoor plants is the Sansevier, a herbaceous stemless evergreen perennial with a thick creeping rhizome and long, erect, usually striped, very dense leaves. Other names for this plant: "pike tail", "mother-in-law's tongue". In Japan it is called "the tail of a tiger", in Brazil - "sword of São Jorge", in the Netherlands - "female tongue", in Germany - "African hemp", in France - "snake plant".
I appreciate this plant for its amazing endurance, unpretentiousness and wonderful decorative appearance. Sansevier requires minimal maintenance, is highly resistant to diseases and pests - only very weakened plants are affected by spider mites and worms. Once I was brewing tea and accidentally scalded the leaves of a sansevier that grows in our kitchen with hot steam. Of course, I was very upset. But, to my surprise and great joy, the plant did not suffer at all - the steam from the boiling kettle did not leave a burn or even the slightest trace on the leaves!
In some countries, for example, in Brazil, Portugal, African countries, the indigenous population uses this plant as protection from evil, the evil eye and various obsessions (for this, a sansevier is usually placed at the entrance to the house). In addition, earlier leaf fibers were used to make bowstrings and ropes. And now, sansevier is cultivated in some areas as a valuable industrial crop (for obtaining fiber).
NASA studies have shown that sansevier is one of the best plants to effectively purify indoor air and improve its quality. Sansevier removes harmful substances released from new furniture, various building materials, synthetic home furnishings, etc. The plant absorbs toxins such as nitrogen oxides, formaldehyde and benzene, removes carbon dioxide, and actively releases oxygen at night. Since Sansevier is a natural air purifier, it is recommended to place it in the bedroom and kitchen.
At the same time, some Portuguese researchers consider the plant sap toxic. Poisoning occurs when the juice enters the bloodstream and when it is swallowed inside in large quantities, in these cases the following symptoms are possible: abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, which pass after a while. Since, fortunately, I did not have to deal with these negative manifestations, I prefer to consider the plant only as an amazing gift for a novice grower.
Sansevier as a pot culture is a great option for home and office decoration. Leaves are used in cut form to create various compositions. After the cut leaves of the composition standing in water have roots, they can be planted in a soil substrate.
Distribution of sansevier
Under natural conditions, plants of the Sansevieria genus grow in areas with a dry tropical and subtropical climate - Africa, Asia, Central and South America, Australia, forming dense thickets. Tough leaves grow vertically from a root rosette, a creeping underground rhizome sometimes emerges on the soil surface. In nature, sansevier grows well on sandy soil, soil with gravel, for example, in deserts, semi-deserts and savannas.
Description of the plant
Plants of the Sansevier genus usually have dense, long, erect, collected in a basal rosette, green, dark green or silvery leaves with various decorative colored stripes (transverse or longitudinal). Depending on the variety, the stripes on the leaves of the sansevier can be white, light gray, light gray-green, silver-white, bright yellow, yellow, golden, etc.
The height of the plant, depending on the variety, is 12-150 cm - there are undersized, medium-sized and tall varieties, the width of the leaves is 5-9 cm.
As a rule, blooming sanseviers are quite large specimens. Their flowers are small, greenish-white (or white-pink, some have a pearlescent hue), with narrow curling petals and long stamens, nondescript, but very fragrant (their aroma is delicate and pleasant, usually it intensifies in the evening), producing nectar, collected in a brush inflorescence. A flower arrow 15-20 cm long, extending from the center of the rosette, appears between the leaves. Flowering does not last long, after which the wilted arrow must be removed.
It should be noted that the sansevier blooms infrequently and irregularly and only under favorable conditions. I have not yet been able to trace its seasonal pattern.
Types of sansevier
According to various estimates, the number of sansevier species is 60-70.
The following types of it are most often found in culture: three-lane (Sansevieria trifasciata), cylindrical (Sansevieria cylindrica) and large (Sansevieria grandis), less often - Sansevieria dooneri, Kirk's sansevier (Sansevieria kirkii) and others.
Probably the most common type in indoor floriculture is the three-lane sansevier (Guinean). Several of its varieties are known: Lawrence (S. t. Var. Laurentii), Futura (S. t. Var. Laurentii Futura), Craig (S. t. Craigii), Chania (S. t. Hahnii), Golden Hanii (S. t. Golden Hahnii), Silver Hania, S. t. Golden Saum, Weise See, Silver Moon, Silver Princesses, S. t. Gigantea, S. t. Britannica and others.
Probably almost every grower has a sansevier. It fits perfectly into any interior, grows well in rooms with any illumination, humidity and air temperature, tolerates rare and irregular watering. But, unfortunately, only a few growers manage to admire the flowering of the sansevier. Therefore, I would like to share my experience of growing a blooming crop.
Illumination and temperature conditions
Sansevier is a light-loving shade-tolerant plant that prefers bright diffused light. Therefore, I usually place my sansevier pots in well-lit areas out of direct sunlight, such as south-facing windows that are partially darkened with tulle curtains.
Sansevier grows well at air temperatures in the range of 15 … 30 ° С. The optimum temperature in the spring-summer period is 20 … 25 ° С. In the autumn-winter time, it is necessary to maintain the temperature not lower than 10 … 15 ° С.
In my opinion, well-chosen illumination and temperature conditions are the main factors necessary for the sansevier to bloom.
Soil, watering regime and air humidity
The soil for planting sansevier should be loose, permeable, not heavy. As a rule, I use a ready-made soil substrate for succulents (sometimes I add a little sand and charcoal to this substrate). You can prepare a soil mixture for sansevier yourself, it should include the following components: leafy, turfy soil, humus, sand in a ratio of 2: 2: 1: 1, you can add a little charcoal.
Usually for sansevier, I choose wide and low flower pots that have good drainage. When planting, be sure to put a layer of expanded clay on the bottom of the pot.
The soil in the flower pot should always be moderately moist. I water the plant more abundantly in summer, in autumn (before the onset of the heating season) I usually reduce watering, since waterlogging of the soil at low air temperatures (+ 10 … 15 ° C) can lead to rotting of the plant or discoloration of leaves. If in winter it is possible to maintain and maintain the indoor air temperature that is optimal for the sansevier (during the heating season), then in this case it is necessary to water the plant as the soil substrate dries up.
It should be noted that the sansevier tolerates an increased content of lime in the soil and watering with hard water. In general, the sansevier does not like excessive watering, but if you separate a part of the bush with the rhizome from the plant and put it in a vase of water, then the plant can stand in this vase for a long time without decaying and even continuing to grow.
Despite the fact that the sansevier easily tolerates low air humidity, in the summer and during the heating season I spray it regularly - usually once a day. Sometimes, if necessary (to remove dirt), I wipe the leaves with a damp cloth.
Top dressing with fertilizers
If necessary, you can feed the plant with a complex fertilizer for indoor plants. Some growers argue that the sansevier does not need to be fertilized at all, since when fertilizing the leaves of the plant can change color, namely, lose brightness and variegation. I have not noticed any changes yet, although sometimes in the spring-summer period I feed the sansevier with fertilizer for succulents (usually 1-2 times a month).
Reproduction of sansevier
Sansevier can be successfully propagated at any time of the year, but it is better to do this in the spring. Vegetative reproduction: it can be done with leaves (or parts of a leaf), but preferably by dividing the bush (part of the rhizome).
When propagated by leaves, they must be cut into pieces 5-10 cm long and planted obliquely to a depth of 2 cm in wet sand at a distance of 3-4 cm from each other. You can cover the planted leaves with a glass jar, they must be ventilated daily. After about 2-3 weeks, roots and young leaves appear.
Many growers note the drawback of this method of reproduction - the resulting plants usually change the color of the leaves, varietal stripes disappear. Some varieties of sansevier, for example, varieties of sansevier three-lane S. t. var. Laurentii, S. t. Hahnii and others, which are natural mutant forms, lose their variegated and bright color when propagated by leaves. For example, in the Lawrence variety, when propagated by leaves, the golden stripe disappears, therefore, it is preferable for them to reproduce by dividing the rhizome. In my opinion, it is much easier to propagate sansevier by dividing the rhizomes.
It is also best to replant the plant in the spring, as needed, usually no more than once every 2-3 years. From my own experience, I can say that sansevier is a very grateful plant. It becomes noticeably more beautiful even with a slight improvement in the conditions of detention.