Growing Pomegranate Of An Ordinary Dwarf Form: Illumination And Temperature
Growing Pomegranate Of An Ordinary Dwarf Form: Illumination And Temperature

Video: Growing Pomegranate Of An Ordinary Dwarf Form: Illumination And Temperature

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: How to plant and grow pomegranate from seed. 2023, February
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Dwarf pomegranate
Dwarf pomegranate

Growing pomegranate

There is a legend that the shape of the sepals of the pomegranate suggested the shape of the headdress of kings - the crown. This is probably why pomegranate is often called the king of fruits. Previously, researchers isolated plants of the pomegranate genus in the pomegranate family (Punicaceae). According to the APG II taxonomic classification system for flowering plants (2003), pomegranate was included in the family Lythraceae.

As a fruit and medicinal plant, pomegranate has been known since ancient times (according to various sources, its history dates back 2000-5000 years). Images of flowers and fruits of pomegranate were used in the ornaments of the ancient Greeks, Egyptians, Arabs, Byzantines, Assyrians. Dried pomegranate fruits were found in the pyramids of the Egyptian pharaohs.

A mention of the pomegranate can be found in the Old Testament ("pomegranate apples"), the myths of Ancient Greece and Rome (the myth of the abduction of Persephone - the daughter of the earth goddess Diometra - by the ruler of the underworld Hades, who gave the kidnapped pomegranate grain to eat), the works of ancient thinkers: Pliny, Galen, Dioscorides and others. The meaning of the myth of the abduction of Persephone is very important, which consists in an allegorical depiction of the annual autumn wilt and spring rebirth of the plant world, the symbol of which is the pomegranate seed.

Spread

Some researchers consider the countries of Asia and the Middle East to be the homeland of pomegranate, since it is in them that wild thickets of pomegranate and a wide variety of cultural forms are concentrated.

Two types of this plant are known: common pomegranate (Punica granatum) and Socotran pomegranate (Punica protopunica). Pomegranate grows in areas with subtropical and tropical climates. Now garden forms of common pomegranate are cultivated in most countries of Asia, the Middle East, Southern Europe, Africa, Australia, the islands of the Pacific and Indian oceans, as well as in Central and South America. On the territory of Russia, common pomegranate grows on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, in Dagestan.

Socotran pomegranate is an endemic plant native to Socotra Island in the Indian Ocean (Yemen).

Application

Pomegranate is cultivated as a fruit, ornamental, medicinal plant. Its juice contains sugars, acids (citric, malic), minerals (manganese, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, iron, copper, zinc, aluminum, silicon, chromium, nickel), vitamins (C, B 1, B 2, B 6, B 15, PP, E), tannins, flavonoids, tannins, various amino acids, oils.

For medicinal purposes, fruits (juice and peel), leaves and flowers of pomegranate are used.

The juice is used for anemia, various kidney diseases, kidney stones and gall bladder, as an antipyretic and anti-inflammatory agent.

For culinary purposes, juice is used, from which various desserts, drinks and syrups are prepared, and fruit seeds, which are used as a seasoning for various dishes and sauces.

Indoor pomegranate blooms
Indoor pomegranate blooms

Common pomegranate

Pomegranate - deciduous or evergreen trees and small branched shrubs 4-6 m high (rarely, individual specimens reach 15 m). The branches of the plant are thin, but strong and flexible enough to support the weight of heavy fruits. The color of the bark is grayish-brown, sometimes there are thorns on the branches.

The leaves of the pomegranate are opposite, tender, shiny, have an oblong shape and a bright green color.

Garden forms of pomegranate come with simple and double flowers. Flowers are single or double (sometimes in bunches), 3-5 cm in diameter, are formed at the ends of the shoots. The most common colors of flowers of garden varieties of pomegranate: orange-red (fiery red), pink, yellow, white, cream. Basically, two types of flowers appear on the pomegranate: some - with short bell-shaped columns (sterile or sterile), the fruits are not tied and fall off after flowering; others are bisexual, pitcher-shaped with long columns, from which fruits develop, they make up about 3-20% of the total number of flowers on the plant. Flowers of intermediate forms are sometimes found. On the pomegranate, most of the flowers that appear are sterile, but they give the plant a very elegant, decorative look that allows it to be used as hedges.Some growers remove barren flowers, which take away the energy from the pomegranate.

Orchard varieties of common pomegranate begin to bloom and bear fruit about 3-7 years after planting (in the dwarf Nana form pomegranate earlier - about 1-2 years). The flowering period of garden forms of pomegranate is May - August. The first berry-like fruits appear in August, the main harvest ripens in October. Fruits are spherical sweet and sour berries with a diameter of 15-20 cm with a dense skin and a persistent leathery sepal with 5-7 triangular lobes. The color of the peel is different - from brown-red to orange-yellow.

The common pomegranate got its name "Punica granatum" from lat. "Punicus" - "punic", "granatus" - "grainy". The ancient Romans called the pomegranate "malum punicum" ("Punic apple") or "malum granatum" ("granular apple"). Indeed, each pomegranate fruit contains an average of 500-700 grains surrounded by transparent bright red flesh, which are divided into segments by thin light membranes.

Dwarf pomegranate

I would like to tell you about my ten-year experience of growing the dwarf form of the common pomegranate Nana, known in indoor floriculture.

Common dwarf pomegranate (Punica granatum Nana) is a deciduous shrub, a dwarf form of common pomegranate, growing in natural conditions in Northern India (Himalayas), Southeast Europe, South Asia. The Nana dwarf garnet was first described as a natural form in 1803. In indoor floriculture, tub (or pot) forms of plants are grown, pomegranate is often used to create bonsai compositions (its compactness and naturally small size are appreciated).

The common dwarf pomegranate is a miniature copy of the common pomegranate, starting from the general appearance and ending with individual parts of the plant. Of course, there are some differences between them - in the dwarf Nana pomegranate, the flowers are orange-red (fiery red), and in the garden forms of the common pomegranate, other flower colors are often found; small fruits contain fewer grains.

The flowers of the common dwarf pomegranate Nana are terry, 2-3 cm long, very bright. They constantly appear on the bush during the spring and summer period. Its leaves are green, oblong, glossy, small (usually smaller than flowers).

The fruits are spherical, at the same time 5-10 pieces are tied on one bush. Fruit rind color: reddish, brownish-pink. Fruits appear in the autumn-summer period. Ripe dwarf fruits are edible, as are full-sized fruits from large shrubs and small trees. But they are very small (2 to 4 cm in diameter) and contain a small amount of pulp, therefore they are considered decorative.

The height of a dwarf pomegranate is usually from 30 to 50 cm (much less often it reaches 1 m). If conditions are favorable, the Nana-shaped pomegranate can flower and bear fruit from April to November.

Cat owners should keep in mind that the dwarf pomegranate is likely to attract the attention of their pets. Flowers and spherical fruits hanging on thin branches will impress playful animals. In any case, I have not yet met cats indifferent to the grenade. From my own experience, I can note that such a game will not bring much harm to the plant (of course, except for the torn off flowers and fruits), the plant after that begins to intensively start up new shoots and bloom profusely.

Conditions of keeping pomegranate

To create favorable conditions, pomegranates need good lighting, sufficient temperature and humidity, abundant watering, and regular fertilization during the active growing season.

Illumination and temperature conditions

Dwarf pomegranate is a plant that loves bright light, but it must be protected from direct, burning sunlight. South, east or west windows are best suited for placing a grenade.

To keep the pomegranate, the optimum temperature in the warm season is + 15 … + 30 ° С, and in winter it needs a temperature of + 5 … + 15 ° С. The dwarf pomegranate of the Nana form is more frost and drought resistant than its large counterparts. For example, plants of this form can withstand a temperature drop down to -10 … -15 ° C. During the year (especially during the period of intensive growth), the pomegranate can be ventilated.

The dormant period of the pomegranate lasts from November-December to February. The plant can completely or partially shed its leaves. At this time, he needs to create conditions for a cool winter: place him in a cool room with low light, reduce watering. Of course, in urban conditions it is difficult to create such conditions for a pomegranate, because the temperature in the apartment will be higher than + 10 … + 15 ° C, therefore, during the rest period, the pomegranate will need to be regularly sprayed. The soil substrate must be semi-dry. In the spring, after the buds appear, you need to put the pomegranate in a well-lit place protected from the cold. If the room where the pomegranate is kept is light and warm, the plant may not shed its leaves. In this case, the dormant period of the pomegranate will be reduced to only one month.

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