Table of contents:
Video: Fuchsia Hybrid
- Features of the content of fuchsia hybrid
- Fuchsia propagation
- Fuchsia care
- Fuchsia pests and diseases
According to the horoscope, the following astrologers are ranked among the plants of the zodiac sign Cancer (June 22 - July 23): modest agraonema, Mason's begonia, bushy peperomias, wavy cotyledon, pearl haworthia, warty gasteria, echeveria, Kalanchoe, oviparous pachyphytum, young-eater, calamus cereal, dieffenbachia adorable, agave, hybrid fuchsia.
Fuchsia hybrid: growing, reproduction, care, pests
An excursion into history
Even a novice florist is well aware of fuchsia - a small shrub with beautiful bell-shaped odorless flowers (white, pink, red, purple) hanging from the leaf sinuses on long thin pedicels.
Sometimes they are located in dozens on the plant. A huge variety of all kinds, varieties and hybrids of fuchsia, forms and colors of its flowers amazes and enchants.
In culture, this flower has been cultivated for more than three centuries. The monk Charles Plumier (1646-1706), who served King Louis XIV, introduced the flower growers of our continent to fuchsias. Taking part in overseas expeditions, after his travels in America in 1696, he brought more than 200 genera of plants. But of all the finds of this famous plant collector at that time, it was fuchsia that charmed the Europeans and became his real triumph.
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The first to describe this plant in his book Nova Plantarum Americarum Genera (Paris, 1703), he named it after the famous 16th century botanist Fuchs. Fuchsia (Fuchsia) immediately went into great fashion in France. And from the end of the 18th century, a new era began for this plant: many growers rushed to create its various hybrids and varieties. In the homeland of fuchsia - in South and Central America and New Zealand - there are almost 100 species of this genus!
In humid places on the slopes of the Andes, hummingbirds are responsible for pollination of fuchsias, which have wonderful shades of red. They hover over the flower, using their long, curved beak to extract nectar from it. In northwestern Europe, bumblebees do this. But since their elongated trunk cannot reach the nectar, they pierce a hole in the side of the flower.
Through the efforts of flower growers-breeders, the total number of fuchsia hybrids in the world has already exceeded 20 thousand. In home floriculture, they predominantly contain hybrid forms that differ in the degree of terry, flower shape, calyx tube length, sepals and petals (purple, red, white, pink). Varieties with double coloration have also been created. Some growers are turning their homes into a "fuchsia kingdom".
Now there are many amateurs (almost professionals), including those in St. Petersburg, who contain large collections of these wonderful flowering indoor plants. They know that it is possible to pick up such a collection of fuchsias from varieties that will bloom from spring to late autumn. The plant continues to win more and more new fans around the world; and it is already obvious that fuchsia will never go out of style.
There are several types and varieties of fuchsia in retail - graceful (F.gracilis), shiny (F.fulgens), three-leafed (F.triphylla), hybrid (F.hybrida) and others. We add that it belongs to the family of Cypress, or primrose (Onagraceae).
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Features of the content of fuchsia hybrid
It is obtained from crossing several types of fuchsia. She has flexible branches covered with opposite medium-sized green leaves, often falling off. The stems of young plants have a reddish tint, with age they become woody and light brown in color, become brittle.
The flowers are single (simple or double), of various colors, emerging from the axils of the leaves; persist for a long period. Sometimes it seems that the bush consists only of them. The flower is a brightly colored corolla-shaped calyx and a tubular corolla with bent lobes (the stamens are longer than the calyx). It is not recommended to move (let alone transfer) flowering plants from place to place, as they can throw off flowers and buds. The fruit is a spherical berry. More than 2000 varieties of fuchsia hybrid are known!
In the room, a bright location is selected for her - a window of east or west orientation is better; try to get rid of direct sunlight, although recently breeders have been striving to obtain varieties that are resistant to midday light. If the pot with plants is on a south-facing window, then you need to take care of some shading. Fuchsia can also be a great decor for rooms with artificial lighting.
Starting from the active growing season (April-August), the plant is watered abundantly. It loves moist clean air, therefore, during this period, it also responds very favorably to regular spraying of foliage with settled water. Like all fuchsias, the hybrid does not like high ambient temperatures, preferring a cool year-round content.
With the onset of constant warm weather, fuchsias begin to tolerate room temperature poorly. Already 22 … 25 ° C can be fatal for her. Therefore, after the end of the return frost, it is advisable to take the pots with fuchsias to the balcony or loggia, then in the fresh air (in the absence of drafts) it blooms very actively (abundant watering and feeding are required).
From May to September (twice a month) they are fed with a solution of organic or complete mineral fertilizer. For the winter, the plant leaves during the dormant period, a rather low temperature (6 … 8 ° С) is considered optimal, although it is permissible to keep it within 13 … 15 ° С; watering at this time is extremely moderate.
It happens that novice growers, trying to arrange a cooler content for their plant, move the pot directly to the window glass, but this can lead to the opposite effect - the leaves will freeze slightly.
Fuchsia can be grown as a perennial crop, but often it is necessary to renew the bush after 6-7 years, since it is often not possible to create optimal conditions for it in indoor conditions, which is why a significant part of the leaves is lost, and the plant suffers greatly from this.
Fuchsia hybrid is propagated by herbaceous cuttings and large mature leaves with a strong petiole. In the latter case, the leaf is pulled from the stem with a sharp and precise movement. At the base of the successfully plucked petiole, there is a bud, which, when germinated, gives a strong young plant. Reproduction by herbaceous cuttings is carried out in the spring (the beginning of active plant growth) - not earlier than late March-early April. Cuttings are taken apical (7-10 cm), not lignified. For rooting, they are placed in a container with either fresh moistened soil of neutral pH (peat, humus, leafy earth and sand in equal amounts), then covered with a glass jar on top, or with water.
It takes about two weeks to root. The success of this undertaking is evidenced by the gradual regrowth of young leaves at the top of the cutting. Then these plants are planted one at a time in small pots, in the middle of summer, the transplant is repeated - in a larger container. It should be noted that it is very convenient to root cuttings in peat-distilled cups, then during the subsequent transfer to large-diameter pots, the roots of the seedlings are not injured.
To give the plant a beautiful shape and stimulate flowering, it is supposed to be regularly pinched and pruned. Due to the ease with which fuchsias tolerate even heavy pruning, they can be formed in the form of a standard plant. To do this, it is necessary to constantly remove lateral leaves and shoots at the bottom of the stem. But it is not necessary to rush too much with the formation of a standard form in fuchsia - this may take several years.
If necessary, perennial fuchsia is transplanted. For adult plants, the optimal ratio of soil components - peat, sand, humus and leafy soil - 0.5: 1: 1: 1.
It must be borne in mind that poor lighting and keeping in a warm room can lead to premature fall of leaves, buds and flowers, the appearance of yellow spots on the foliage and even a reduction in the flowering period.
Fuchsia leaves can turn yellow for other reasons. This may be the plant's reaction to either too hard tap water, or to fluctuations in moisture in the soil - either overdrying or overmoistening the earthy coma. Spraying fuchsia foliage exposed to the sun without shading easily causes burns.
The leaves of adult plants (over two years old) often turn yellow due to a lack of magnesium or iron in the soil, so the soil is supposed to be periodically renewed, and when feeding, use aqueous solutions of complex fertilizers with microelements. Unfortunately, it often happens that the purchased plants are thrown away after flowering by flower growers, as leaves fall on them. However, you can save them by putting them in a cool place: even if the leaves fall off, but the plant is in a cool place (in a slowed down state), then it will give leaves again.
Fuchsia pests and diseases
Of the pests on fuchsia, the greenhouse aphid, whitefly and spider mite are quite expected, especially in hot and dry indoor air; to reduce their harmfulness, first of all, the air humidity is increased.
When using biological and especially chemical preparations, it is necessary to do the processing not in residential premises. In the summer - preferably outdoors, choosing calm weather, in the shade, strictly observing the instructions for dosage solutions and safety precautions.
The greenhouse aphid is a small (up to 3 mm) insect, black or pale green in color with an oval-convex body with thin legs. It usually settles on young (just blossoming) leaves, sucking out cell juice from them; a sooty fungus develops on its sticky secretions. The easiest way is to wash off the pest with hot (50 ° C) water and soap solution (20 g of liquid potassium soap per 1 liter of water). For better efficiency of the fight against it - add actellic (2 ml / l) to this solution.
Whitefly is an insect (1-1.5 mm in size) with a pale yellow body and two (of equal size) pairs of wings, at rest folding flat and densely covered with white waxy dust, and is able to jump and fly. Plants are harmed by adults and especially their larvae, sucking juice from leaves and young shoots and causing the appearance of subtle small yellow spots. The insect multiplies very quickly, since it takes only 20-30 days for one generation. Of the drugs, actellic, verticillin, fitoverm are effective.
A spider mite is a tiny (0.1-0.3 mm) mobile insect with an oval body of a greenish, yellowish or reddish color. The signal of its appearance is the formation of a net of the finest cobweb on the leaves and tips of young shoots. The leaves are washed with hot soapy water (20 g of liquid green soap per liter). Among acaricides, Neoron is considered the most effective (1 ml / l); two- or three-fold processing is done with an interval of 10 days.
Some experienced flower growers (especially during the active growing season) carry out monthly preventive treatment: they spill the soil with a solution of Aktara or Confidor (dosage according to instructions), having previously moistened it with water for irrigation.
If the grower does not follow certain rules for care, he can get a whole "bunch" of troubles associated with the defeat of plants by fungal diseases. First of all, prevention is important: it is necessary to keep the flower garden clean. Since fuchsia has delicate fragile shoots, they are easily broken off or damaged.
In places of damage, gray rot (botrytis) appears, which over time is able to transfer to healthy tissues. In this case, diseased leaves and stems turn brown (at the stem, the base often rots), the affected parts are covered with a gray fluffy bloom. Also, the pathogen attacks weakened tissues, spreading to healthy ones in contact with them.
It is recommended to carefully cut out the damaged parts of the plant, treat the fuchsia itself with Bordeaux liquid. Rust is noted on the leaves in the form of small brown pads (diseased leaves infect healthy ones). Affected leaves are cut off and destroyed; from chemicals it is possible to spray with Bordeaux liquid (0.4-0.5%) and Topaz.