Video: Cryptocoryne - Plants For The Aquarium
According to the horoscope, the zodiac sign of Pisces corresponds to plants: papyrus, spreading cipeus ("umbrella plant"), orchids, fragrant geraniums, fishtail palm, ampelous ficuses, lymphatic beetle, plectrantus and aquarium plants.
Among aquarists there are many amateurs who have aquariums in their apartments not for the sake of keeping exotic fish, but just for the cultivation of beautiful "herbs" in them. These plants can be the main decorative element in the underwater landscape.
Aquariums with well-chosen vegetation really look quite attractive both in a regular room and in an office.
In addition, it must be borne in mind that in aquarium practice, plants play an extremely important role: they are responsible for many biochemical processes taking place in the aquatic environment, especially for the utilization of fish waste products. Also, these plants may be the only source of oxygen for them. In some cases, they effectively perform the functions of a natural filter, precipitating mechanical particles suspended in water on the surface of their leaves.
Home aquariums of various sizes contain almost 500 different species and varieties of freshwater plants. Among them there are many that came to us from tropical latitudes.
Experts distinguish four large groups of aquarium plants: aquatic plants rooting in the ground; rooting semi-aquatic (marsh or coastal) plants living in areas with excessive moisture; floating on the surface of the water; floating in the water column. Plants from the above groups are characterized by different properties and claims. For example, Cryptocorynes and Vallisneriae root vertically downward.
Plants immersed in water often have delicate, fragile stems and leaves; this plant community assimilates dissolved gases, light energy and various nutrients through the leaf surface, but their root system can be very poorly developed.
In many plants, incompatibility with each other is often observed, which leads to deterioration of weaker species. So, according to experts, Cryptocorynes should not be kept with Vallisneria and Sagittarius in the same aquarium.
The temperature regime for aquatic plants depends on their geographic origin, so it is important to know where they came from in our aquariums. Water should not be exposed to large temperature fluctuations, because such a difference is an extremely undesirable factor: some plants are able to somehow endure it, others will respond with a sharp deterioration in their well-being.
Among the beautiful ornamental aquarium plants, representatives of the Aroid family (Aronnikovye) Agaseae occupy a worthy place among many aquarists. Specialists in this family include perennial grasses (mainly with tuberous rhizomes), some lianas, floating aquatic plants.
The leaves of this group of aquatic grasses are mainly large, thick (often fleshy), whole, of unequal shape and different venation. Flowers (unisexual or bisexual), as a rule, are located in dense cobs with a separate-leaved, simple, calyx-shaped (often subtle) perianth; stamens number from 1 to 9, pistil 1. Covering leaf of the inflorescence (rather bright color) - the cover - is usually attached to one side of the inflorescence (or covers it). Fruits are juicy or dry, single or multi-seeded.
The family has a lot of species, of which more than 100 (aquatic and marsh plants) are popular to varying degrees and can be successfully cultivated both in large tropical aquariums and warm humid greenhouses, and in containers of the size allowed in apartments. Most of them are highly decorative and are considered a favorite among many aquarists.
Plants of the genus Cryptocoryne, which are considered to be their homeland in the tropics of Southeast Asia, are a striking representative in this group. Cryptocorynes are widespread in Hindustan, southeast China, Vietnam, the islands (Sri Lanka, Philippines), in the subequatorial belt of Australia and in a number of other geographic regions.
There are more than 60 types of Cryptocoryne; most of them can be accurately recognized only by a good specialist in aquatic plants, so when purchasing plants of this genus, you have to trust the seller. We will focus on the representatives of this genus, which are quite common and popular among aquiriumists.
Cryptocoryne aponogetifolia (Cr. Aponogetifolia) is one of the most beautiful of its kind. Her homeland is the coastal waters of the Philippine Islands. There it reaches a height of half a meter, in a home aquarium it is much smaller. She has a well-developed root system, consisting of a lobe of filamentous roots; there is a straight and short stem; bright green, strongly corrugated petiolate lanceolate leaves (up to 20 cm long, up to 4 cm wide), collected in a rosette. The petiole is about half the length of the leaf; the main vein is thick and protruding, the lateral ones are weakly visible (up to 5 veins are noticeable).
The most favorable conditions are soft water, neutral or slightly acidic environment. With medium light and timely feeding, it grows very quickly, developing good strong ground shoots, but they are separated only after the plant has formed 3-4 leaves. Grown in a semi-submerged state with high humidity, the plant usually does not reach this size if it is cultivated as an underwater form.
Cryptocoryne vesicle (Cr. Bullosa) occurs in the water column off the northwestern coast of Kalimantan Island. This perennial plant was named for the thickening on the upper side of the leaf blade. It has an oval-elongated rhizome (thickness at the base 7-8 mm) and petiolate, simple, elongated-lanceolate, juicy green leaves (up to 10 cm long, and 3.5 cm in diameter), rounded to cordate at the base, bluntly pointed towards apex, strongly wavy at the edges. In the leaves, the main vein of the leaf is thick and protruding, the lateral veins are clearly visible (up to 7 veins in total). Petioles are rounded, 10-20 cm long, dark green with purple lines.
This species is similar to the previous one, but it also has differences - smaller leaves and a heart-shaped base. The peduncle is short, the tube of the veil at the base and in the upper part is narrowed (no more than 1 cm); as the fetus ripens, the base of the tube expands. Petal 1.5-2.5 cm long, lanceolate, purple, slightly curved towards the top, with a short tail. The flower has 5-6 pistils with oval stigmas located in a circle, above them (within a radius of 5 mm) - about 40 stamens.
The plant grows well and multiplies in an aquarium with a water level of no more than 30 cm on ordinary soil under moderate light, water hardness pH 6-6.5 and a temperature of 24 ° C … 27 ° C; requires good aeration. The optimal content is in a clay pot; used sandy-clay soil with peat chips and 2-3 pieces of birch coal.
First, river gravel (5-7 mm in size) 1.5-2 cm thick, sandy-clay soil (5-6 cm layer) and then coarse river sand are placed on the bottom of the tank. Cryptocoryne vesicular is very unpretentious, grows and reproduces under artificial light; more suitable for the foreground of the aquarium. In aquarists, it is less common than Cryptocoryne aponogetonolist.
Cryptocoryne balance (Cr. Balansae)comes from the water equator of Vietnam, Laos and Thailand. Her "style" is swamps and stagnant waters, where she forms impenetrable thickets. Tuberous rhizome (less often elongated), adventitious roots can grow widely. The stem is erect, short (up to 10 cm high). Linear leaves up to 40 in length (with petioles up to 60 cm), 2 cm wide, narrowed at the base and smoothly turn into petioles, also taper and sharpen towards the top, juicy green above and below, their surface is strongly corrugated. The main vein on the upper side of the leaf is somewhat recessed, the lateral veins are weakly expressed. The peduncle, depending on the water level, can reach 1 m in length (at the top it is spirally twisted); bedspread up to 15 cm long; the inner part of the flower is from light brown to brown, the surface of the petals is smooth.
In an aquarium, it grows at a water temperature (pH 6.8-7.2) and air in summer 25 ° C … 28 ° C, in winter 16 ° C … 18 ° C; propagated by ground shoots. The plant (leaves are located both in the water column and on its surface) is suitable for a solid aquarium and looks more advantageous if planted in the middle or near the wall of the aquarium.
Cryptocorynes are fine for a tank like this where they intend to keep a decent group of schooling fish with light signals that prefer to stay in a shady spot at the back of a densely planted tank.
These plants are preferred for herbivorous fish, for example, the kabomba, which is a more expensive food. Among the diseases of Cryptocoryne, actinomyces (a parasitic fungus) should be noted, which is fought with antibiotics. It must be borne in mind that in the prevention of this and other diseases of aquatic plants, the main thing is to maintain optimal conditions of maintenance, hygiene and careful care throughout the year.
Floating plants can be affected by spider mites and scale insects. Against the first pest, twigs and leaves are sprayed with strong infusions of garlic, onions, tobacco; against the second, rubbing is applied with a soft toothbrush dipped in a soap-kerosene emulsion (for 1 liter of warm water, a tablespoon of simple soap and a teaspoon of kerosene (but preferably the scale choose by hand, since the fish are unlikely to like the above mixture).