Table of contents:
- Pelargonium groups
- Growing Pelargonium
- Reproduction of pelargonium
- Diseases and pests
- Pelargonium as decoration
Video: Garden Geranium Or Pelargonium (Pelargonium) - Species, Cultivation
2023 Author: Sebastian Paterson | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 20:34
According to the
horoscope, the following plants correspond to the Aries zodiac sign (
March 21 - April 21): echmea sparkling and striped, fluffy coleria, Indian and Japanese azalea (with red and pink flowers), royal begonia, reed gusmania, dwarf pomegranate and euphorbia brilliant, garden geranium (with red and dark pink flowers).
The generic name (Pelargonium L. Herti) is given for a peculiar feature: after pollination and falling of the petals, the flower column grows and lengthens, resulting in a fruit similar to the beak of a crane (from the Greek “pelargos” means “crane”).
Of the five large groups specific for biological properties (zonal, thyroid, large-flowered, succulent and fragrant) pelargoniums for simultaneous outdoor and indoor cultivation, perhaps, only the first two groups are suitable.
Zone (belt) pelargonium- semi-shrubs with lignified highly branching stems and originally colored leaves (they have a concentric pattern in the form of a strip of a darker color, repeating the shape of the leaves). Large brightly colored (simple, semi-double or double) flowers (10-140 each) are collected in dense or loose inflorescences - umbrellas. With skillful pruning, the plant is formed in the form of a bush (and even a tree): its life expectancy can exceed 20 years. These pelargoniums are very light-requiring and can tolerate (but not permanently) strong sunlight. For the summer, they are planted in flower beds, in garden vases, on balconies and window sills; watered regularly and abundantly, avoiding excess moisture in the soil. In winter, they are kept at low temperatures and moderate watering. In the spring, every year, the soil (especially in perennials) is replaced, the elongated shoots are trimmed (by 1 / 2-1 / 3). This procedure promotes the active growth of young stems, which produce brighter, lush inflorescences.
Group of thyroid (ivy) pelargoniumgot its name from the shape of their leaves. It is represented by ampelous forms with thin, flexible, smooth hanging or creeping stems. The leaves of the plants of this group are fleshy, leathery, shiny (with a waxy bloom) on long stalks, reminiscent of the leaves of common ivy. Thanks to the highly branching stems of these plants, they create whole cascades with numerous umbrella inflorescences located on long vertical peduncles (up to 15-18 cm long). Each inflorescence has 10-15 flowers of medium size and the widest range of colors. With good care, thyroid pelargoniums can bloom all year round. They are especially good in hanging vases and baskets, in wall and window boxes, on balconies. But in the open field they are used less often than the previous group,since the shoots and leaves of the thyroid pelargonium are rather fragile, and must be handled carefully. Once warm weather is established, the plants can be placed outdoors. If necessary, they can be made to grow up a trellis or along a wall. Thyroid pelargonium is characterized by increased resistance to rust.
Heat-loving and drought-resistant zonal pelargonium is best placed on a window of western or eastern orientation. For thyroid pelargonium, southern exposure windows are preferable, but it is necessary to avoid excessive direct sunlight. Indoors, they are kept in pots or boxes, which are put on an open balcony or an unglazed loggia for the summer.
Before the start of the growing season, the soil is partially renewed in these containers. The plant is carefully removed from the pot, trying not to damage the roots, shake off the soil from the periphery and return it to the same container or transfer it to a larger container (do not forget about drainage from the pebbles), pouring fresh earth on the sides of the coma. The soil mixture is composed of sod and humus soil, sand and peat (2: 2: 1: 2).
Ampel forms of thyroid pelargonium are tied to a support. In the summer, the plants are watered abundantly, preventing excess moisture in the pot pan, and fed with a solution of full fertilizers weekly. To stimulate the appearance of new flowers, already faded ones are cut with a razor, as they spoil the appearance of the plant.
The climatic conditions of our zone make it possible to grow pelargoniums in the open field only in an annual culture: at -10 … -3 ° С they die. When the daytime temperature is above 18 ° C, the plants are planted in open ground to decorate the garden plot, lawns and flower beds in parks. Pelargoniums of ampelous forms look great at the facades of buildings. The landing site should be sufficiently illuminated by the sun (can be placed under tall trees).
For normal development, plants are selected well-drained, fertile soil. After planting, they are watered abundantly, periodically fed. To prevent the topsoil from drying out, after watering it is mulched with a thin layer of peat. Plants also do not tolerate prolonged rainy weather. With the approach of frost, containers with pelargoniums exposed to the open air are brought into the room, having previously checked it for the presence of pests.
Wintering - on a bright window of a cool room with a northern orientation (8 … 12 ° С). With a lack of light, the stems are stretched, and the leaves brighten. To reduce the negative effect on plants of rising hot air currents, a protective screen made of polyethylene film is installed on the heating system batteries.
Pelargonium does not have a clearly defined dormant period and is able to bloom indoors all year round, but it will not hurt for some time to rest. The low temperature in December-February is favorable for planting flower buds of the plant (this is especially important for the thyroid group). In winter, Pelargoniums are watered very sparingly, avoiding water getting on the leaves. The increased temperature and high humidity of the air inhibit the normal development of this plant, contributing to the defeat of various diseases.
In March, pelargoniums are pruned to form them into a bush; thin, weak shoots are removed, the rest are shortened.
Reproduction of pelargonium
Pelargonium is propagated mainly by vegetative means. Seed reproduction is impractical. And green cuttings are used all year round. Mother plants are well-developed healthy 2-3-year-old plants, from which the middle part of young shoots is taken for rooting (the upper, juicy part with 3-4 internodes and the lowest, lignified one) is cut off. The stalk is cut 0.5 cm under the knot (they are dried for one hour before planting): the lower leaves are removed, the upper ones are shortened by half, the inflorescences are plucked out. Rooted in washed clean coarse sand (10 cm thick) or in a layer of a mixture of peat and sand. The plant material is planted to a depth of 2-3 cm of a moist and leveled substrate. Optimum temperature for rooting18 … 22 ° C. The planted cuttings are watered abundantly. They are kept open, since excess moisture is destructive for them, therefore, in order to avoid decay, they are watered carefully (it is better when the upper layer of the substrate is slightly dry), and in sunny weather they must be shaded. The leaves are periodically sprayed from a spray bottle so that the water settles on the plates. Watering and spraying is especially carefully monitored during rooting in the autumn-winter period, avoiding excess moisture. If, during the rooting process, the leaves of the cuttings turn yellow and dry, they are gradually removed. It takes at least 3-4 weeks to root the cuttings.
Pelargonium grows very quickly. To prevent the bushes from stretching, you should avoid shading them with each other - arrange the pots in a timely manner. In the summer (after spring cuttings), mother plants are transplanted into open ground - in a bright place with well-prepared soil.
In the fall, having cut the cuttings again, the plants are dug up to frost and brought into the room. It should be borne in mind that the transplant of pelargonium is painful (the leaves turn yellow and fall off), so she is given time to recover.
Diseases and pests
If pelargoniums constantly "migrate" from the apartment to the street (and vice versa), you need to monitor the appearance of diseases and especially pests on the plants. The most harmful are greenhouse whitefly, tobacco thrips, spider mites, greenhouse and pelargonium aphids. To combat these sucking insects, it is advisable to use multiple spraying of inhabited flower crops with solutions of plant insecticides (solutions of garlic, onions, tomato and potato tops, etc.) or chemical preparations - karbofos (0.3%) or actellic (0.1%) …
Of the fungal diseases, rust and spotting are the most dangerous, of the viral diseases, twisting and circular mosaic of leaves. Fight against fungal diseases with Bordeaux mixture and other copper-containing preparations. Topaz (0.05%) is also effective against rust. The carriers of viruses are harmful insects that feed on plant sap. It is impossible to cure plants from these diseases, therefore, the pelargonium infected with viruses is destroyed; new cuttings should be started only from healthy queen cells.
Pelargonium as decoration
Indoors, pelargonium can be planted in containers of various sizes. Use portable containers, they are easy to move from room to room. Large, wide concrete vases are a wonderful decoration for stairwells. Paired hanging containers with a lush cascade of blooming thyroid pelargonium decorate any entrance to the veranda or porch of a manor house, at the entrance gate of the site.
Since olden times, pelargoniums have decorated balconies and loggias, where they are placed in 1-2 rows. For this, undersized forms of zonal pelargonium and ampelous forms of the thyroid are suitable. If the balcony is large, the plants are planted in volumetric boxes, with tall erect varieties in the background, and ampelous in the foreground. Plants are planted in groups to create flower "carpets" or "pillows". Containers with lush ampelous plants are also hung from the outside of the windows. As a result, even a single street window of the apartment comes alive with bright inflorescences of pelargoniums.
When placing pelargoniums in the open field, the grower can plant them simply in the soil or in concrete rings, or in ceramic pots. You just need to take into account: zonal pelargonium does not like excessive illumination, and thyroid does not want to get under the cold street wind.
Small containers with ampelous plants, suspended on a lamppost or decorative poles, look interesting. Pelargonium pots look great on green lawns, asphalt or tiled areas. Lawns along the paths are planted with low-growing varieties, followed by medium and tall ones. Flowerbeds are decorated with varieties taking into account creative imagination and personal taste. In the open field, zonal and thyroid pelargoniums are capable of producing a continuous abundance of colors of various colors.
In order for outdoor plants to constantly delight the grower, they are regularly looked after all summer: they water them in a timely manner, loosen the ground, weed out, feed them with fertilizers, remove dried leaves and inflorescences that spoil the appearance of the compositions.
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Cold weather in spring and early June retarded the growth and development of all plants in the garden. In such weather, when the soil temperature drops to 12 degrees Celsius, the root system of plants does not work and, in order to maintain the growth point, they begin to take nutrients from the leaves, so the foliage turns yellow and falls off prematurely
Marjoram is valued as a spicy aromatic, medicinal, and more recently as an essential oil plant. This plant is used as a medicinal and spice plant. As a spice, it is used for canning and sausage production, in cooking and winemaking. Marjoram is nicknamed sausage herb, as in many countries it serves as the main seasoning for sausages
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It is usually called geranium, but this is not entirely correct. The generic name Pelargonium was given to this plant by Lerinier de Brunnel for an interesting feature. After pollination, the flower column lengthens, and the fruit becomes similar to the beak of a stork (from the Greek "stork" - "pelargos")