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Video: Types Of Ferns For Growing In An Apartment
2023 Author: Sebastian Paterson | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 05:47
Read the previous part. ← General information about ferns
Ferns in the apartment and office
Leaflet (leaflet) centipede (Phyllitis scolopendrium)
So, if at least one fern has settled in your house, know that it is a descendant of the incredibly ancient plant settlers of our planet and deserves special respect. But even if you don't know anything about the age of fern-like plants, they still attract attention with truly graceful and endlessly diverse forms of their openwork leaves, called in botany vayami.
On the one hand, the fern leaf is its modified stem, rising upward. (The creeping stem is called the rhizome, which can be very long or very short, and even tuberous in different species). On the other hand, as paleobotanists have been convinced, fern leaves morphologically correspond to large branches of rhinophytes - their probable ancestors, which have become extinct long ago.
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This modification has resulted in a more advanced type of leaf, much better adapted to maximize the use of sunlight during photosynthesis. It must be admitted that very few species and varieties of ferns are still found in rooms and gardens. And those that are found belong to only a few genera. Most often it is the well-known ampelous nephrolepsis, the maidenhair "hair veneer", rarely pteris - that's probably all.
In fact, dozens of species and varieties of the most beautiful ferns can decorate our homes and gardens, because many of them successfully winter in the Middle Belt and Northwest. You can verify this by visiting the greenhouses and arboretums of the botanical gardens of St. Petersburg and Moscow. In the 80s, a large collection of rare species and varieties of ferns was in the production of the Control and Seed Experimental Station (KSOS) in Pushkin. A wide range of potted ferns were supplied to the trade network. Currently, rare species and varieties of these plants can be purchased in specialized stores, botanical gardens, and possibly in private nurseries.
In European countries, ferns are highly valued, they are working on their selection and get many interesting, diverse, unusually beautiful varieties of plants with bizarre cut leaves, all kinds of scallops (cristate shape), feathers, one might say, "lace and frills". It is often impossible to guess that there is a fern in front of you - their appearance is so diverse.
In recent years, flower shops have seen rare species and varieties of ferns for rooms that you can include in your collection. A feature of this group of plants is shade tolerance and an increased need for uniform moisture in the soil and air, which should be taken into account when caring for them.
I would like to acquaint readers with the most interesting ferns. Probably sublime nephrolepis (Nephrolepis exaltata (L.)) family. davalliev is the most common type of fern in home collections. It is a hardy ampelous plant with long, majestically falling leaves of a light green color. There are numerous garden forms and varieties of nephrolepis, differing in the degree of waviness and fringe of the edges of the leaves of its almost one meter length. It reproduces most often by root suckers, less often by spores.
Young rosettes with a piece of rhizome are cut from the mother plant and planted in separate small pots (at this time it is especially important to regularly spray young ferns for better rooting). In our climate, nephrolepis can only live as a houseplant or greenhouse plant.
The optimum temperature for growing is 18-22 ° C, relative humidity is 50-70%. This plant requires loose nutrient soils with a pH of 6-6.5, uniform watering throughout the year, fertilizing with mineral and organic fertilizers, especially in spring and summer. Gives an excellent cut for arranging bouquets. Origin - humid subtropics of Japan, New Zealand, tropics of both hemispheres.
It is very similar to nephrolepis, but is much less common in the culture of Goniophlebium subauriculatum. This is also an ampelous species with numerous long (up to a meter) falling leaves, more delicate and velvety to the touch. Garden forms and varieties of goniophlebium are distinguished by feathery dissection of the edges of the leaves, densely sitting on the central core (rachis). It reproduces mainly by dividing the bush, by root suckers. Indoor or greenhouse plant. Nephrolepis and gonioflebium provide excellent greenery for arranging bouquets.
Davallia pyxidada (Davallia pyxidada)
Davallia pyxidada also gives greenery for bouquets, but much shorter than the previous species - only 15-25 cm, which is required for small round bouquets. Davallia is an epiphytic fern with a creeping rhizome, pinnately dissected leathery triangular leaves. Sori are located along the edge of the leaves and are circular or kidney-shaped containers.
Propagated most often in spring and summer by segments of densely pubescent rhizomes with a leaf. Reproduction by spores gives a large yield of young plants. In winter, a temperature of at least 15 ° C is required. Davallia grows successfully in tree trunk hollows in winter gardens.
Two more species of ferns, rare in domestic culture, are also very similar to each other. Both grow in the form of a rosette of entire, elongated-lanceolate leaves of light green color. In both species, a young leaf emerges as a pubescent curl in the center of the rosette, gradually unwinding and growing to the normal size characteristic of the species and variety.
The first of them is called a leaflet (leaflet) centipede (Phyllitis scolopendrium (L.) Newm of the family Aspleniaceae. It comes from the Mediterranean. An evergreen perennial herb with a rosette of broad-lanceolate to lanceolate-belt-like leaves. They can be with sharp or blunt tips) leathery, slightly wavy along the edge, with short petioles.
Nephrolepis sublime (Nephrolepis exaltata (L.))
Sori (receptacles of spores) are arranged in pairs on the underside of the leaf, do not reach the median shaft and the edge of the plate. The spores are brown, reniform. The rhizome is short, covered with films at the tops. The plant is undemanding to lighting. In winter, the leaflet is kept at a temperature of 10-15 ° C and an air humidity of 15-85%.
The soil should be fertile, loose, neutral or slightly acidic (pH 5-6). In summer, abundant watering and spraying are needed, regular (once every 10 days) feeding with growth fertilizers in a half dose (Uniflor-growth, 0.5 caps per 2 liters of water). Propagated by spores and division of the bush. There are garden forms and varieties of leaflet. The Serratifolium variety has a large rosette of entire glossy light green leaves, in a pot culture - about 25 cm in height, in soil (in the soil of a winter garden) - up to 60 cm, 3-5 cm wide, slightly wavy at the edges.
Asplenium nesting (Asplenium nidus L.)
Plants of the Marginatum cultivar attract with a compact rosette of narrow leathery leaves, wavy at the edges. Their height is no more than 20 cm. The Edwardsee cultivar has an unusually exotic appearance - a compact rosette of narrow crystal-shaped leaves ("comb-shaped") at the ends about 15 cm high.
The second species is the nesting asplenium (Asplenium nidus L.) - a much larger plant, an epiphyte from Southeast Asia, Polynesia, and tropical Australia. An adult plant at the age of 5-6 years has a lush rosette of leathery leaves with short petioles 50-60 cm high, up to 10 cm wide.
Leaves are dense, glossy, with a pronounced midrib. Sporangia narrow, brown, located between the midvein and the edge of the leaf blade. It reproduces by spores, grows slowly, and is especially decorative in winter gardens. Heat-loving.
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Viviparous Asplenium (Asplenium viviparum) is an absolutely amazing large plant of the same family: brood buds appear on strong, high (up to 70 cm) thinly dissected leaves. They grow into small rosettes - miniature copies of the mother plant - right on the surface of the mature leaves. Young asplenium rosettes can be easily removed and grown in bowls or small pots.
In the same way, you can propagate Callipteris proliferum - a large fern with dark green leathery leaves up to 60 cm long in a spreading rosette. Both species are quite stable in room culture: they tolerate dry air better than others, they are not very demanding on lighting; in addition to children, they give a large number of spores and easily multiply by sowing them. Their homeland is Asia, Australia, Africa.
A large-sized fern, unlike any other, is amazing - phlebodium aureum of this family. Centipede (Polypodaceae). In nature, he lives in the tropical zone of the western and eastern hemispheres.
In the middle and northern latitudes, it grows in botanical gardens and indoor culture. Its leaves are 1-1.5 m long and 30-50 cm wide; they are pinnate, whole-edged, slightly wavy at the edges, leathery, bluish-bluish, with a waxy coating. Sporangia are round, large, golden-orange, for which the species got its name.
A large creeping thick rhizome in soft golden-brown scales attracts attention - it is located on the soil surface and gives the phlebodium an exotic look. It must be said that sporulation occurs in adult specimens in the third or fourth year of life. Very often, abundant self-seeding grows in a pot with a large phlebodium.
It is convenient to transplant the grown small ferns into small dishes in several pieces for the fastest achievement of decorativeness. When the spores mature and spill out, the spore-bearing leaf turns yellow and dies, this is the natural end of its life cycle (it is natural for all spore-bearing ferns).
Young leaves grow very quickly to replace, beautifully unwinding from the "snail" rudiment. Phlebodium golden is rather blue in color of leaves and is one of the rarest and most decorative ferns. It is thermophilic, grows well even on the south side, but at some distance from the window.
There are several garden forms and varieties: Glaucum with bluish leaves, Glaucum crispum also have wavy leaves. It is durable, lives in the home culture for about 30 years. It rarely requires transplants, it grows in large vessels. In addition to spore propagation, it is possible to separate part of the rhizome with 1-3 leaves.
Adiantum, "Venus hair"
Rod Adiantum this. Adiantum includes the most graceful ferns with delicate foliage. They are often called "hair venus" - (A / capillus-veneris). The thin stems (rachis) of the leaves are usually shiny, dark and bouncy indeed resemble hair, and the foliage in general is lush female curls. In total, there are about 200 types of maidenhair.
These ferns live in shady moist forests on the soil surface and on rocks (in crevices), along rivers, on limestone tuffs of tropical and subtropical countries (when growing, you should take into account the origin of the maidenhair and add a little lime to the soil mixture). Maidenhair are terrestrial plants with creeping or nearly erect stems.
The leaves of most species are pinnate: from once pinnate to five times pinnate. In some species, the leaves bear brood buds at the top. A characteristic feature of the leaves is their water repellency. Drops of water flow off them without wetting the surface. The genus owes its name to this property (from the Greek "a" - not and "diano" - to moisten).
Sori with spores are located along the edge of the leaf segment, which bends downward, creating a characteristic "twisted" leaf shape. In Russia, great interest in the maidenhair arose at the end of the 19th century. Propagated by division, spores, often self-seeding. Sensitive to dryness of air and soil. It grows well in rooms and conservatories with sufficient humidity and indirect lighting. In winter, a temperature of about 15 ° C is preferred.
Up to 130 species are included in the genus Cheilanthes, characteristic of the arid habitats of America and Africa, where dry and wet seasons alternate throughout the year. One of the fastest growing species is Cheilanthes miriopylla, which originates from tropical Africa. It is an elegant, upright perennial plant with multiple feathery light green leaves on long pubescent petioles.
The leaf slices are slightly swollen, with a matte surface, reminiscent of grained suede. On the underside of the leaf are numerous silvery-gray scales covering the sori with spores. Abundant sporulation. Heilantes develops a beautiful rosette of leaves up to 20 in the second year of culture.
It is used for landscaping rooms, offices, winter gardens. Prefers moist air and soil, but still quite resistant to overdrying the coma (in this case, the leaves curl, they can dry out, while new leaves grow very quickly).
One of the most stable in room culture is a representative of the family of the thyroids (Aspidiaceae) - the sickle cytomium (Cyrtomium falcatum). It is a perennial rhizome plant with a short, straight rhizome. The leaves are pinnate, 35-70 cm long and 12-15 cm wide, leathery, dark green, glossy above, with parallel veins that do not close at the edge.
Leaflets are alternate, almost entire, saber-shaped, 10-12 cm long and 2.5-4 cm wide, dentate at the edges. Rounded sporangia in the veins are located along the veins. The petiole is up to 30 cm long, dark brown with short scales. The leaves are cut for a long time and are a good arrangement material. There are garden forms with dissected leaves. Thanks to the leathery leaves, cytomium better than other ferns withstands the dry air in rooms and hibernates quite safely at a temperature of about 10 ° C without additional lighting.
Pteris Cretan, (Pteris cretica)
Sometimes on sale you can find the Cretan pteris (Pteris cretica) of the pteris family. Pteris originates from the Mediterranean, common in the humid tropics and subtropics, some in the temperate zone. They grow well in conservatories and in ordinary rooms and offices.
They are distinguished by a special appearance: on long thin and strong light brown petioles, fancifully pinnate openwork leaves up to 30 cm rise. It seems that all possible delights in the fanciful form of leaf plates are concentrated precisely in the pteris. New leaves sprout in "loops", gradually straightening. Sporangia surrounds all the carved contours of fertile (spore-bearing) leaves with a solid narrow strip.
There are many garden forms and varieties, differing in curly leaves, color (green, with white or silver stripes), growth intensity and bush vigor: Albo-lineata, Riverstoniana, Wimsettii and others. Grain-leaved forms winter at a lower temperature, variegated and curly ones need warmth (15 ° C). All of the above species of ferns in middle and northern latitudes can only live in indoor or greenhouse culture. Further, the species and varieties of ferns that can be grown both in greenhouses and in gardens where they successfully winter will be presented.
Read the next part. Types of ferns for growing in the garden →
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