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Fern Types For Growing In The Garden
Fern Types For Growing In The Garden

Video: Fern Types For Growing In The Garden

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Video: How to grow and care for ferns 2023, January
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Read the previous part. ← Types of ferns for growing in an apartment

What ferns are suitable for growing at their summer cottage

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Male dryopteris (Dryopteris filix-mas)

The genus Driopteris includes about 150 terrestrial, mainly forest species, most of which grow in a temperate climatic zone.

One of the most beautiful and widely known forest ferns is the male fern (Dryopteris filix-mas). The thick, obliquely ascending rhizome is covered with wide soft scales and the remnants of leaf petioles.

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It bears at the top a bunch of large leaves with a double-pinnate plate. On the segments of the lamina, 5-8 sori are visible from the underside, located on the branching of the veins and covered with kidney-shaped coverlets. The leaves of the male fern reach full development only in the spring of the third year of the fern's life. Their size differs according to varieties (Multicristata, Sguamilosa, Grandiceps) and, in addition, depends on the place of growth: the larger the feeding area, the larger the specimen. In winter, the rooms are kept at a temperature of about 10 ° C (on the windowsill).

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Polystichum setiferum

The male shieldworm as an anthelmintic is included in the State Pharmacopoeia of the Russian Federation. One of the most resistant and decorative species is Dryopteris pseudomas Cristata. If this variety of Driopteris grows in a tub or soil of a winter garden, its leaves reach large sizes (up to 70 cm). Winters well in the open field.

Another species of the Shytitnik family is distinguished by a high decorative effect - the polystichum setiferum. It is a terrestrial fern with a thick, hard rhizome and double-pinnate leaves. The whole plant has a fluffy appearance due to the large number of scales on the petioles of leathery leaves, serrated or serrated along the edge (the teeth end with a bristle).

Interesting varieties Proliferum, Plumosum densum. A feature of this species is the possibility of reproduction by viviparous buds, which develop on the surface of the leaves. For rooting, the buds are separated with pieces of leaf, planted in a box or bowls at a temperature of 20-22 ° C, and after rooting - in pots. Abundant sporulation occurs in the third year of culture. Polystychum can grow successfully in the garden and rooms (in winter, 10 ° C is enough).

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Athyrium (Athyrium filix-femina)

Perhaps the most graceful garden ferns are varietal atrium, which grow in rooms, but in winter they shed their leaves and remain dormant (Athyrium filix-femina - Multifidum, Sagittatum). These are rather large, land ferns of forest origin, characteristic of the forest zone of Eurasia and North America. They inhabit wet meadows, forests, river banks, swampy areas, going beyond the Arctic.

Collected in a sprawling bunch, large leaves with short petioles covered with sparse scales and a double-triple-plumose plate give a particularly decorative appearance to these plants. Leaves are light green, die off for the winter. In spring, new leaves grow from the ends of the rhizomes to replace them, and this is one of the most beautiful moments in the life of ferns.

At the beginning of its development, the leaf resembles a spirally twisted flat snail. Gradually, the leaf buds unwind and grow into adult leaves (fronds) in a few weeks. For us, the Russian name for this fern is more familiar - female kochedyzhnik. But why was it called that?

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Orlyak ordinary (Pteridium aquilinum)

It turns out that the base of the plant petiole resembles in shape and size an ancient tool with which our ancestors weaved sandals - kochedyk. Hence the strange name today - kochedyzhnik. Why is it called feminine? Most likely because it has especially delicate, delicately laced leaves, which are heavily dissected compared to other fern species. Kochedzhnik is a medicinal plant (a decoction of its rhizomes is used as an anthelmintic).

Speaking of forest ferns, one cannot fail to mention the most famous and noticeable common bracken in the forest (Pteridium aquilinum). Its large openwork leaves do not grow as a rosette, but each on its own from long cord-like rhizomes.

Spores rarely reproduce. Fans of "mushroom hunting" are well aware of these leaves, which look like flat umbrellas with a thin long handle - they often grow under the waves and mushrooms.

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The bracken wakes up much later than other ferns in the forest and garden, during the flowering of bird cherry. He is famous for the fact that his young shoots are eaten.

The collected sprouts are prepared on the same day: they are cleaned of leaf particles, leaving only the rods, and boiled in clean water to remove bitterness and tannins. After such preparation, you can prepare soups, side dishes, roasts, filling for hot sandwiches with cheese, sausage, ham.

The bracken is especially revered in China, Japan, purchasing its shoots in the Far East. Starch is obtained from bracken rhizomes - its content reaches 50%. In the old days, the rhizome also served as a soap.

Bracken leaves have bactericidal properties and are used for storing fruits and vegetables (they transfer products during transportation and laying them for winter storage in the underground). The leaf ash contains a lot of potassium; it served as a raw material for the production of glass and soap.

Read the next part. Fern agricultural technology →

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