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Hypericum - Medicinal And Ornamental Plants
Hypericum - Medicinal And Ornamental Plants

Video: Hypericum - Medicinal And Ornamental Plants

Video: Hypericum - Medicinal And Ornamental Plants
Video: Зверобой непахучий Хидкот (hypericum hidcote) 🌿 Хидкот обзор: как сажать, саженцы зверобоя Хидкот 2023, March

Types of hypericum

St. John's wort large

St. John's wort large
St. John's wort large

In addition to the well-known medicinal plant - Hypericum perforatum, the genus St. John's wort includes about 300 more species. These are perennials, shrubs, semi-shrubs, there are even annuals. I will tell you about four species growing in my garden.

I will start with the most amazing, as I think, St. John's wort (Hypericum ascyron) - a perennial herb with a straight smooth stem up to 1 m high. Branching in the upper part gives the plant a pyramidal appearance, due to which the plant has a synonym: St. John's wort (Hypericum pyramidatum). Its leaves are oblong, large (up to 10 cm long), located in pairs on the stem. The branches end with 3-5 flowers.

Admiration is caused by its large flowers up to 8 cm in diameter with five egg-yellow petals and a cloud of long stamens, giving the flower a unique charm! It is surprising that the petals are not symmetrical, like in most plants, and their ends are bent to the sides, which makes the flowers resemble an ancient Indian swastika.

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And if you take into account that some plants have petals turned clockwise, while others - against, then you are even more amazed. This St. John's wort blooms for a long time - in July - August. This rare species is found in nature in the south of Siberia, the Far East, Japan, China, and the northeastern United States. Since the 19th century it has been grown in gardens as an ornamental plant. But we must not forget about the medicinal properties of St. John's wort.

The herb infusion is used in Russian folk and Tibetan medicine for dizziness and headache, palpitations, gastritis and pancreatitis, as a diuretic, and also externally for burns and eczema. To prepare the infusion for a glass of boiling water, take 1 tablespoon of dry chopped herbs, insist for 2 hours, filter. Take 2 tablespoons three times daily before meals.

St. John's wort

St. John's wort large
St. John's wort large

The next two species are semi-shrubs, they overwinter with green leaves, and only the tops of the branches die off. One of them is Olympic St. John's wort (Hypericum olympicum). His homeland is Southern Europe and Asia Minor. This St. John's wort has been introduced into culture since 1706.

All year round, its bushes are attractive with numerous flexible stems about 30 cm long, densely covered with wintering leaves with a bluish bloom. But these plants are especially effective during flowering, when 3-5 large (up to 5 cm in diameter) lemon-yellow flowers bloom at the ends of the branches.

Prefers open, sunny places, loamy, drained, humus-rich soils. Very unpretentious, winter-hardy, in one place it can grow up to 10 years.

St. John's wort

Another semi-shrub species is St. John's wort (Hypericum patulum). Natural habitat - mountains of Southeast Asia. Grown in gardens since 1862. Its reddish-brown branches up to 1 meter long are spread out to the sides. Leaves are elliptical 5 cm long and 2.5 cm wide, leathery. Bright yellow large flowers at the ends of the branches bloom for about two months. In Siberia, St. John's wort hibernates under the snow without shelter. It blooms well and thrives in a sunny place with fertile soil.

St. John's wort

And, finally, about the most common and famous St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum). This is one of the most ancient medicinal plants, mentioned in the works of Hippocrates, Dioscorides, Avicenna. It was also known in Ancient Rus. The people called it healthy grass, ailment, red grass, valiant blood, bloodthirsty, bloodthirsty, ordinary duravets, and also "a remedy for 99 diseases."

There is an assumption that the Russian name for the herb "St. John's wort" comes from the Kazakh "jaraboi" - "healer of wounds". However, it has long been noted that when pets eat St. John's wort (especially with light skin), they develop itchy ulcers, which was the reason for this name. The second version seems to be more plausible.

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St. John's wort is a perennial plant up to 80 cm high with opposite oval leaves with translucent dots on them (hence the name of the species - perforated). Essential oils are concentrated at these points. The leaves also contain flavonoids, saponins, anthocyanins, azulene, imanin, hypericin, tannins and resinous substances, ascorbic acid, a lot of carotene and trace elements, as well as substances with P-vitamin activity.

St. John's wort is used for diseases of the kidneys, liver, stomach, gall and urinary bladder, cardiovascular, nervous and mental diseases, tuberculosis, arthritis, rheumatism and gout, inflammation of the intestines, prostatitis, sciatica, hemorrhoids, as well as for burns, skin lesions, wounds, ulcers, furunculosis, acne, abscesses, diseases of the oral cavity.

At home, prepare infusion, tincture and oil. The raw material is dried herb (top 20 cm) of St. John's wort, collected during flowering. Raw materials are stored in paper bags in a dark place for three years.

Infusion: 1 teaspoon of raw materials for 1.5 cups of boiling water to insist in a thermos for half an hour. Take half a glass three times a day half an hour before meals.

Tincture: 1 part raw material to 5 parts 40o vodka. Apply orally 30-50 drops before meals. For rinsing the mouth - 30-40 drops per sip of water.

St. John's wort oil: 25-30 g of fresh St. John's wort flowers with leaves are poured with 200 g of vegetable oil, insisted in a dark, warm place. After three weeks, strain and squeeze. Keep refrigerated. Lubricate the affected areas of the skin, the oral cavity with inflammation.

All St. John's wort reproduce well by seeds. They are sown in the spring without prior preparation. It is better to sow in a cold greenhouse in the garden or in a box on a glazed balcony, but not at home. Under natural conditions, day and night temperature fluctuations awaken seeds. In addition, dry air in an apartment adversely affects seedlings. The seeds of St. John's wort are small, so they are sown superficially, i.e. pressed into the soil with a finger and do not cover it with earth.

Seedlings are small and at first require careful supervision: protect from direct sunlight, prevent the soil from drying out and waterlogging. In June, seedlings can be transplanted to a permanent place after 30 cm into fertile soil in a sunny place, shading the planting for the first time.

Semi-shrub species of St. John's wort, Olympic and sprawling, also reproduce by cuttings and layering.

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