Table of contents:
Read the previous part. ? Types of decorative ponds in the garden
How to build a pond in the garden
A decorative reservoir should have sufficient temperature inertia - plants in it will feel better. In other words, a deep body of water with a small surface of water will slowly heat up, while in cold water plants will develop more slowly.
True, in such a reservoir fish will feel better (there is more oxygen in cold water). A shallow reservoir with a large mirror heats up quickly and cools down quickly, the water in it is warmer, but it evaporates faster.
Taking into account the above considerations, we conclude that the optimal depth of a decorative reservoir for a site (from 6 to 20 acres) should be 0.8-1.2 meters. The optimal shape of the reservoir is shown in Fig.
A few recommendations for those who will create such a reservoir:
- The pit walls have a slight slope - 10-15 °. The water very firmly presses the film against the walls of the pit.
- The bottom of the pit passes into the wall smoothly, with a radius.
- The bottom is flat or slightly concave.
- As noted earlier, on soils with pebbles, cloth, old linoleum, etc. are placed under the film.
- When calculating the size of the film - the bend at the top is 0.2-0.3 meters.
We neglect the difference between S and S1, i.e. we consider, for simplicity of calculation, the same cross-section of the bottom and the mirror of the reservoir.
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So, we get to work:
- we determine the place of the reservoir (there must be 8-10 hours of sun a day);
- we determine the geometry of the reservoir mirror;
- we calculate the required area of the bottom film, knowing the depth of the reservoir (from 0.8-1.2 m), the folds at the top (0.2-0.3 m). The film is sold in rolls 4, 6, 8 meters wide;
- to control the correctness of the calculation, you can measure the size of the film using a cord, laying it along the walls.
However, it is more correct to start digging a pit, already having a bottom film.
Laying the film in an artificial reservoir
It is better to dig a pit in the summer, during a dry period. Firstly, it is more pleasant, and secondly, it is lighter, the soil is drier, less water seeps into the pit. The film warmed up in the sun becomes more elastic. We carefully remove pebbles, sharp roots. You can put old fabric, linoleum and even corrugated cardboard on the bottom and on the edges of the pit.
With the help of assistants, we put the film on the foundation pit and start pouring water. Filling the reservoir, she presses the film to its walls and bottom. Straighten the folds of the film at the top. It is clear that a rectangular or square reservoir forms only four folds at the top, but a round or arbitrary shape has many folds of the film at the top.
The edges of the reservoir are aligned according to the level of the mirror. Do not do this to the nearest millimeter. The level difference can be 2-3 cm. A drain tube can be placed on one side. It will dump excess water when it rains.
We decorate the top of the reservoir with concrete slabs, wooden dies. The best material is limestone 6-8 cm thick.
The best water to fill a reservoir is from a clean transparent natural reservoir, lake, river. The most unfortunate is water from a well. To "revive" it, 20-30 liters of water from a natural clean reservoir is added to the pit, it contains a large number of microorganisms, bacteria, which are immediately taken for cleaning. Bugs and spiders will appear in a few days. Frogs will come to the pond when you plant the plants under which these animals hide during the day.
After a week or two, you can put plants in it - the simplest ones. By the way, in the summer aquarium plants - kabomba, pistia - feel good in the reservoir. Eichornia, an Amazonian plant, grows well and even blooms.
After a few months, the reservoir becomes alive. Can you even run carp or carp, at the rate of 4-5 fish per 1m? surface. It is necessary to feed the fish, the main thing is that the food does not spoil the water. Crucians are trainable - you can call them to feed with the sound of a bell.
Filling an artificial reservoir with water
But fish is a separate topic. We need a deeper reservoir, from three to four meters. You will also need wintering sludge boxes at the bottom, the correct feeding regimen. But, Russian crucian carp lives in a basin …
Even in European countries, when decorating reservoirs, wild plants are not neglected. I hope that on the banks of rivers, lakes, old canals, you have more than once met such plants as marigold, trollius bathing suit, calla, chastuha, lake reeds, willow loot, forget-me-not, arrowhead …
Siberian irises, brunner, buzulniks, krasodnevs look organic near water bodies. Very good at decorating host ponds. You can always find 2-3 interesting varieties from more than 4000 varieties and species.
Shrubs will come in handy - viburnum, wolf bast, willows: silvery, basket, red.
A special place in the design of this special place in the garden belongs to grafted weeping forms: willow, apple, birch, elm, mountain ash - with a falling crown they look extremely impressive next to a decorative reservoir.
Family of nymphs
The most beautiful plants for reservoirs are from the nymph family. This is the well-known yellow egg capsule and white water lily (nymphea candida). Nymphaeans are all listed in the Red Book, therefore, when transferring these plants to the garden, you should not overuse the amount. My personal experience speaks of a fairly high ability of these plants to adapt to the conditions of small garden ponds.
Artificial pond decoration by vegetation
Decorative forms of nymphs are the result of the selection work of flower growers in France, Germany, USA, Switzerland. This is quite understandable - there is a favorable climate. In our conditions, these plants vegetate from early June to mid-September - only 3-3.5 months.
In a film reservoir, plants are grown in plastic containers with a volume of 8-12 liters. The volume depends on the size of the planting material. It is better to plant aquatic plants in spring, at the beginning of May, when leaves appear on the surface of reservoirs. The soil can be taken from ponds or lakes. There should be clay and sand at the bottom of the container. In nature, nymphs are fixed at the bottom in clay and sand, and they receive food from a layer of silt. For us, first, it is better to hang the plants at a depth of 20-30 cm, in the upper layer of water. As it warms up and the leaves grow back, the bucket with plants can be lowered deeper, and in the summer put on the bottom (our depth is 0.8-1.2 m).
The past season was cold, so in my pond all summer I kept the nymphs in the middle layer of water, I used a plastic box as a support for the plants. Water, even in a warm period, in a decorative reservoir warms up to a depth of 20-30 cm.
Caring for plants in the summer is easy - harvesting yellow leaves, removing large pond snails. They are very voracious and can harm plants. Flowering begins in July and lasts a month and a half. The development of plants is very dependent on weather conditions: the warmer the summer, the more abundant their flowering, they develop better and will winter more reliably.
In October, the growing season ends. It is necessary to inspect the container with the plant, tear off the remaining leaves, and then the bucket is lowered to the bottom of the reservoir, where it remains until the end of April.
In the spring the plant rises from the bottom, large specimens are separated. This is already a way for them to reproduce. Then the whole cycle is repeated.
Water lily, nymphea
Plants can also be overwintered using the "dry" method. They can be placed in a cellar, basement, where the temperature in winter does not drop below + 3 … + 5 ° С. Seed reproduction is unacceptable for an amateur, seedlings bloom for 7-8 years.
It is better to buy plants in spring, so that by autumn they can develop a vegetative mass sufficient for wintering. Plants purchased in the fall are best kept until spring in an aquarium, indoors.
A few more notes about the content of plants:
- nymphs do not like splashes from the fountain on the leaves;
- one nymphea plant needs 1-1.5 m? surfaces, with a thickened planting, the water does not warm up well;
- in cold seasons, local forms feel better. They are less effective, but more stable and unpretentious;
- freezing of the reservoir occurs to a depth of 20-30 cm. The more snow, the thinner the ice.
In nature, in our reservoirs, nymphs and egg capsules are found at depths of 0.5-1.5 m. For reservoirs with a depth of 20-40 cm, dwarf forms can be recommended. They are obtained by hybridization of the Tetragona nymph. In natural conditions, it occurs south of our region, but slowly moves north. These hybrids have flowers 4-5 cm in diameter.
The most common varieties are:
- Alba - white form;
- Rubra - red;
- Paul Harriot - coppery pink;
- Marliacea Chromatella - yellow.
Varieties for reservoirs with a depth of 30-50 cm:
- Aurora - pink-orange color;
- Fabiola - white and pink;
- Rosie Arey - pink;
- Holland - red-pink.
Varieties for reservoirs up to 70 cm deep:
- Escarboll - red;
- Leidekery Lilaacea - purple-red;
- Sirius - red;
- Rosea is pink.
Artificial pond in the garden
Shallower depths - the water warms up faster, therefore, dwarf forms bloom faster, develop more actively. Nymphs for great depths (1.2 m) were created with the involvement of nymphs native to Mexico, India, Africa. The flowers are larger, warm water is required, but it is not. Therefore, these varieties, for example the variety Marlacea Carnea, bloom very late, in cold seasons they may not bloom at all.
In conclusion, I will say the following: the device of a decorative reservoir does not require large costs, great labor. But a beautiful pond is a wonderful decoration of the garden.