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Video: Types And Cultivation Of Philodendrons Indoors
2023 Author: Sebastian Paterson | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 20:34
Phylodendron in your apartment
According to the horoscope, the zodiac sign Virgo (August 24-September 23), according to flower astrologers, includes the following plants: Japanese fatsia, heptapleurum arboreal, monstera deliciosa, cross, syngonium, cissus, dracaena bent, roicissus ("birch"), Japanese aucuba, scindapsus - "devil's ivy", philodendron
Philodendron (Phylodendron) is a member of the Araliaceae family, which also includes monstera, dieffenbachia and scindapsus, and has about 120 species, and many indoor hybrids have already been obtained.
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In its natural state, this beautiful, very large plant is found in the tropical rainforests of Central and South America. For its huge heavy leaves, the philodendron is otherwise called "leaf tree". But the very name philodendron comes from two Greek words: "phileo" - "to love" and "dendron" - "tree".
Philodendrons are becoming more and more popular in indoor floriculture due to their large green leaves and easy maintenance. The presence of a large philodendron gives the room a certain exotic flavor. Typically, philodendrons are divided into two groups: tree-like forms and vines.
It is believed that philodendrons - lianas are more suitable for keeping in indoor conditions due to their unpretentiousness, but they need an obligatory support (in the form of a bamboo or ordinary stick or driftwood wrapped in sphagnum moss). In the absence of support, the stems will hang ugly from the container. Tree-like forms with large leaves and forming a crown up to 3 m in diameter are preferable for large rooms - spacious halls and foyers, wide staircases and winter gardens.
There is a wide variety of philodendrons in indoor culture. There are types of small size, convenient for placement in an apartment of any size, there are also giants.
Climbing (lianas) are more numerous than bushy ones, and are interesting for amateur flower growers. Climbing or clinging philodendron (P.scandens) (homeland - Puerto Rico, Cuba) is the most popular among amateur flower growers, since it is a small and very hardy plant (resistant to unfavorable conditions and little demanding), therefore it takes root well in any apartment.
On a winding stem with abundant aerial roots at the nodes, there are matte, pale green (slightly reddening on the underside) leaves (8-14 cm long, 5-9 cm wide), heart-shaped, long-pointed at the top. The leaves turn dark green with age. This species almost does not bloom indoors.
The blushing or reddish philodendron (P. erulescens) (originally from Colombia) is very interesting due to its high decorative effect. This vine has a greenish-red stem at a young age, later acquires a greenish-gray. It has ovoid leaves; at a young age they are reddish-brown, but in adults (15-25 cm long and 12-18 cm wide) they are dark green, only at the edges retaining a reddish tint.
Both of these species, the most interesting for indoor floriculture, are considered the most shade-tolerant among vines. Climbing - grows better even in partial shade. In winter, the temperature is required at least 15 ° C.
The warty philodendron (P. verrucosum) is interesting with bright purple petioles covered with hairs. It has a pleasant velvety green color with a bronze tint of leaves, along the veins of which light stripes run.
Philodendron graceful (P. elegant) (originally from the tropics of South America) - with a thick stem (up to 10 cm in diameter) and deeply pinnately dissected large (40-80 cm long and 30-50 cm wide) oblong leaves, a bit like leaves palm trees. For better development, this beautiful (but slowly growing) species should choose a bright room. In addition, it requires a considerable area to grow.
Philodendron black-golden (P. melanochrysum) is similar to climbing philodendron, but it is characterized by greenish-black leaves. Although the leaves of a slowly growing plant of the P.insemanii species, quite worthy of any collection, look like the leaves of the climbing plant, they are variegated in color. The species P.callinofollium and P.wendlandii are less known: the first is more compact in size, with bright green leaves and "swollen" petioles, the second has simple, lanceolate leaves, 35 cm long, growing almost in a circle from the center of the plant.
Aerial roots are formed from the sinuses of philodendrons - lianas, which is their characteristic feature. They cannot be cut off, but should be directed into the ground of the same pot: when they reach the soil, they begin to additionally supply the plant with nutrients. Sometimes these aerial roots are collected in a bunch and planted in a separate container with fertile soil.
The leaves of some types of philodendrons have the same property as that of the monstera - to predict the onset of bad weather. Before cloudy or rainy weather in autumn, and in winter, before a thaw, large drops of water appear at the ends of the leaves, which then roll down. In connection with this property, these philodendrons, as well as monstera, are called "crybaby".
Erect (bushy) philodendrons are considered unpretentious plants, but they are multi-volume. They pay less attention to unfavorable conditions and improper care, at the same time they are diverse and very decorative.
P.bipinnatifum is a beautiful low-growing plant (native to Brazil), its name comes from the Latin word for "feather", which is associated with the shape of its leaves. In the narrowly dissected philodendron (P.angustisectum), the edges of the leaves are dissected into narrow long lobes, each leaf resembles a rounded green feather. Although the leaves (up to 90 cm long and up to 70 cm wide) in the philodendron Sello or Zelo (P.selloum), reaching a height of up to 2 m, are as strongly dissected as in the narrowly dissected, its leaf lobes are wider and with wavy with fistone edges.
Philodendron double-dissected (P. bippinatifidum) grows up to 1-1.5 m in height and is characterized by very large (up to 60 cm long) arrow-shaped greenish leaves with a grayish tint. Philodendron Martius (P. martianum) has a very short trunk, or it is almost absent at all; its leaves are large, heart-shaped, erect on a thick petiole.
These are warm and moisture-loving plants that prefer bright rooms, at the same time they are shade-tolerant, they do not tolerate direct sunlight. In summer, they are abundantly watered and sprayed with settled soft water, preventing oversaturation of the soil with moisture, since stagnant water in the sump negatively affects the state of the philodendron root system: after water is absorbed into the soil substrate, its excess is drained from the sump.
Philodendron responds favorably to feeding (every two weeks) with a solution of complex mineral or organic fertilizers and high humidity. It is not recommended to take it out in the summer to fresh air. The leaves are wiped with a soft sponge or damp cloth. During the winter maintenance of the philodendron, they lower the temperature, reduce watering and stop feeding.
Since this plant is not too demanding for lighting, in winter it can even be placed away from the window. The philodendron is transplanted depending on the strength of its growth. If it grows too fast and gives a lot of roots, then it must be replanted annually.
There are several ways of reproduction of the philodendron. Most often, it is propagated by apical shoots (each segment should have a leaf and a bud), cutting into pieces of 10 cm in size. The cuttings are placed in wet sand (temperature 24 … 26 ° C), and so that the humidity approaches 100%, they are covered with a glass jar or a plastic bag. When the cuttings form a root system, the plants are planted in pots (9-10 cm in size) in a soil substrate consisting of turf, humus, peat and sand (in a ratio of 1: 2: 1: 0.5).
When propagating by dividing the lignified trunk, the segments are placed in a prepared box with a light substrate (sand and peat in a ratio of 1: 1) so that the bud is directed upwards, and lightly sprinkle them with peat, watered, ventilated (2-3 times a week) so that the segments are not rotted. After rooting, these parts are seated.
The method of reproduction by air layers is resorted to, having a large plant. A weak incision is made on the stem under a leaf with a bud, the damaged area is covered with wet moss, and then tightly tied with plastic wrap. After 3-4 weeks, a root system is formed at the wound site, and the young plant can be separated from the mother plant.
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I had a chance to visit the largest farm "Niva" in the Moscow region, which is engaged in the reproduction and sale of indoor plants. There I saw a lot of philodendron plants, in which on each of the many trunks several air layers were simultaneously arranged in this way.
Many plants - vines often lose their lower leaves and become ugly. In this case, one or two of the upper aerial roots should be tightly wrapped in moist moss, tied with polyethylene and attached to the trunk. Aerial roots in the moss form many roots, then the top with one or two leaves is cut off and planted in a pot of soil so that the roots and cut are covered with soil. The cut is sprinkled with crushed coal. In this way, a new young tree is obtained.
When buying a philodendron, growers usually prefer specimens without damage with well-colored leaves, with signs of new growth. Undernourished, long and thin plants with yellowed lower leaves should not be taken when buying. If the leaves have a drooping appearance, but the plant seems to be quite healthy, here the reason may lie in too dry soil. To restore the philodendron, the pot with it is immersed in a bucket of water, then allowing excess moisture to drain off.
If the lower leaves turn yellow and fall off, this indicates a possible waterlogging. It is necessary for the soil to dry out, then let the plant recover, and only then resume watering (but in moderation).
The leaves have turned pale, and in the spring there is no growth - it is possible that the soil is depleted with nutrients. It is necessary to transplant the philodendron into a new fertile soil, regularly do top dressing.
When brown or black rings appear on the leaves or along their edges, pay attention to whether they have leaned against a cold window in winter. A burn is also possible if leaves with drops of water (after watering) come into direct sunlight. The appearance of such signs on the leaves is also possible if hot electrical devices are located nearby.
If the plant stops growing, the foliage is sluggish, the reason may be too low a room temperature. To improve matters, the plant is rearranged to a warmer place.
Of the harmful insects on the philodendron, you can find mealybugs, scale insects and aphids. The scale is a sedentary oval insect (white or pink) 2-3 mm in size, covered with a waxy powder. It is usually localized on leaf petioles, but with a high abundance it can also be found on leaf blades. Experts advise to first wash off the specimen with soapy water, using potash liquid soap (20 g / l), and then insure by treating it with actellik solution (2 ml / l water).
The scabbard is found on the leaves. Experienced flower growers remove each individual by hand, and then wipe the leaves with a cotton swab dipped in vodka. If treated with a solution of acaricide (0.2% actellic), then this procedure is repeated no more than three times with a break of 6-7 days. When working with philodendron, remember that this is a poisonous plant and can irritate the mucous membranes of the eyes and nose.
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