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Features Of Fertilization Of Floral Ornamental Plants
Features Of Fertilization Of Floral Ornamental Plants

Video: Features Of Fertilization Of Floral Ornamental Plants

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Fertilisation and Post-fertilisation Changes in the Flower | Don't Memorise 2023, January
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To make the flowers fragrant …

Viola
Viola

Viola

The set of flower ornamental plants grown in the open field is very diverse. They are conventionally divided into three groups: annuals, or annuals, biennials and perennials, each of which has its own characteristics of nutrition and fertilization.

Annuals

Annuals - plants that achieve decorative value, form seeds and cultivated for one year, are called annuals (annuals). They consume nutrients throughout the growing season.

For example, from the beginning of development to budding, aster forms a large vegetative mass, which requires a lot of nitrogen. In addition, phosphorus and potassium, trace elements are also needed for development. Ammonium nitrate is used at the rate of 45-60 g per 1 m². In this case, half the dose is applied before planting, the rest is distributed over two dressings - at the beginning of budding and before mass flowering.

In the second feeding of annuals (before mass flowering), potassium salt is added to ammonium nitrate at the rate of 20-25 g per 1 m². Do not increase the dose of fertilizers, especially nitrogen fertilizers, as this can cause excessive tillering.

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Turkish carnation
Turkish carnation

Turkish carnation

Biennials

Biennials include plants that achieve decorative value in the second year of cultivation. In the first year, these plants develop a bush in the form of a root rosette of leaves, in the second, flowering shoots bloom profusely and form seeds.

Biennials hibernate directly in the open field and do not require digging for storage in a warm place. They need to lower the temperature to stimulate further flowering and fruiting. The most common biennial plants in floriculture are viola, carnation, bells, mallow, daisy, foxglove, forget-me-not.

Usually biennials are grown as seedlings, but if conditions permit, it is better to sow them directly in open ground. Until the emergence of seedlings, the crops are kept under a film, constantly monitoring the soil moisture. Water as needed. If the seedlings are thickened, you need to plant them more freely. The timing of transplanting biennials to a permanent place is late summer-early autumn or April-May. Before the cold weather begins, the plants will get stronger and take root well, which will help them easily overwinter. For the winter, it is advisable to mulch biennials with humus or peat in a layer of up to 5 cm. This will protect them from freezing during snowless winters, and from bulging during spring frosts.

In early spring, top dressing is carried out with complete mineral fertilizer. Two additional dressings are required: 20 g of superphosphate, 8-10 g of potassium chloride and 15 g of ammonium nitrate per 10 liters of water (for 2-3 m² of plantings).

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Tulips
Tulips

Tulips

Perennials

Bulbous flowers (tulips, daffodils, hyacinths and lilies) are the most popular perennials. They are distinguished by the shortest growing season, and without fertilizing these plants, it is impossible to obtain high-quality flowering and full-fledged bulbs.

Tulips- their bulb is renewed annually, that is, replaced by a new one. The root system is poorly developed and consists of thin adventitious roots, devoid of root hairs. Roots are formed in autumn, and the bulk is at a depth of 15-20 cm. Due to the fact that the growing season of tulips is very short (60-75 days), they are most responsive to the natural fertility of the soil, as well as to pre-planting fertilization. In autumn, at the beginning of rooting, along with nitrogen, they need enhanced phosphorus and potassium nutrition. In the spring, in the budding and flowering phase, the need for phosphorus and potassium increases even more. The onset of the budding phase is accompanied by intensive growth. At this time, the spare nutrients contained in the mother bulb are intensively spent on the formation of aboveground organs and the growth of daughter bulbs.The introduction of phosphorus and potash fertilizers during this period against the background of nitrogen fertilizers is the main condition for early flowering and obtaining high-quality large bulbs. The most important period for tulips is from budding to flowering. At this time, the content of assimilable forms of phosphorus and potassium in the soil should be approximately twice as much as nitrogen.

Tulips are very hygrophilous. Therefore, feeding will have a positive effect if it is carried out on well-moistened soil. Mineral fertilizers applied to dry soil will do nothing but harm.

A month before planting the bulbs, apply on 1 m²: humus - 8 kg, 40 g of ammonium nitrate, 30 g of superphosphate and 25 g of potassium salt. If the soil is dry at this time, then watering should be carried out before fertilizing. The next year, in the spring, tulips are fed with mineral fertilizers four times. In the first feeding immediately after the snow melts and in the second in the budding phase, add 20 g of ammonium nitrate, 10 g of superphosphate and potassium salt per 1 m². In the third top dressing (during flowering) give superphosphate 10 g and potassium salt 20 g. The fourth top dressing is carried out immediately after flowering - 20 g of ammonium nitrate and potassium salt per 1 m².

Daffodils
Daffodils

Daffodils

Daffodils- bulbous plants blooming in early spring. Unlike tulips, their bulbs do not die off, but grow throughout the growing season. From the appearance of the first shoots to the formation of buds, the vegetative mass of daffodils grows rapidly. In this regard, they absorb the largest amount of nitrogen. As the budding phase approaches, nitrogen consumption decreases, while phosphorus and potassium intake increases. In the autumn, before planting large bulbs, it is advisable to apply a complete mineral fertilizer at the rate of: ammonium nitrate 30 g, superphosphate 15 g, potassium salt 10 g per 1 m². In the same doses, they are added to three subsequent dressings (before flowering, during and after flowering), always with sufficient soil moisture. In the second year, the effectiveness of fertilizing increases. The best time for the first feeding is the beginning, the second is the end of April. Ammonium nitrate will be required 20 g,superphosphate and potassium salt, 10 g per 1 m² in each dressing. However, the highest decorative effect is promoted by top dressing in the third year of life based on: ammonium nitrate 50 g, superphosphate and potassium salt, 20 g per 1 m².

Hyacinths are bulbous plants, the period of active growth of which lasts 3-3.5 months. They prefer permeable soils with a high humus content. For planting in the fall, before digging in the soil, humus, sand and peat are introduced, as well as mineral fertilizers at the rate of 60-80 g of superphosphate, 30 g of potassium salt per 1 m². The latter can be replaced with wood ash (200 g per 1 m²). It is better to apply nitrogen fertilizers in the spring as a top dressing per 1 m²: 20-30 g of ammonium nitrate dissolved in 10 liters of water. The second time they feed when buds appear - 60 g each of ammonium nitrate, superphosphate and potassium salt, the third - during flowering and the fourth - immediately after it ends at the rate of 40 g of superphosphate and potassium salt.

Lilies are very demanding on the supply of nutrients throughout the growing season. It is best to apply humus, it is advisable to apply mineral fertilizers in the second and third years of life in the ratio: 1 part nitrogen to 2 parts phosphorus and potassium. In the second year, it is recommended to apply full mineral fertilization three times during the growing season. In the third year, three additional fertilizing is also carried out with full mineral fertilizer. The first time they feed when leaves appear, the second - in the budding phase, and the third - during the period of mass flowering.

Victor Pesochny

Photo by Olga Rubtsova

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