Table of contents:
- Classification of clematis. Varieties
- Small-flowered clematis
- Large-flowered varietal clematis
- Shelter of clematis
Video: Classification And Varieties Of Clematis, Shelter For The Winter
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Classification of clematis. Varieties
Clematis varieties Arctic Queen
The entire variety of clematis is traditionally divided into two large groups: species or small-flowered clematis and varietal, hybrid or large-flowered clematis.
This group includes a large number of wild species of clematis, as well as garden forms and varieties close to these species. We will consider only those of them that are quite common in our country and are of significant interest for garden design.
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Dukes (Atragene), uniting several similar species, are woody lianas blooming in early terms (May) on old shoots (first pruning group). Flowers - bells lowered down, turning after flowering into fluffy balls - fruits. Many authors distinguish the princes in a genus separate from the clematis.
They differ from large-flowered clematis in resistance to unfavorable growth conditions, diseases and pests, early and abundant flowering. The princes are cold-resistant and can winter on supports in our climate. They are decorative throughout the season due to their beautiful leaves, flowers, fruits, which is very important for vertical gardening. Earlier in the gardens there were mainly Siberian and Alpine princes. Now on sale there are many varieties of large-petal prince (Atragene macropetala), which have various colors and double flowers.
Clematis tangutica (Clematis tangutica) - looks like a prince, but always has a yellow color and blooms in the second half of summer on both old and young shoots. It is also very unpretentious, blooms profusely and for a long time. Although Tangut clematis can be left on supports for the winter, in the spring it is often necessary to do radical sanitary pruning, since it freezes very much in cold winters. This has little effect on its decorative effect. Clematis Tangut can be attributed to both the first and third pruning groups.
Clematis straight - recta (Clematis recta) and clematis manchurian (Clematis manchurica) are closely related species from the group of herbaceous clematis. The aboveground part dies off in autumn, and it does not need to be preserved (the third pruning group). These clematis have very small white flowers, collected in large inflorescences, their flowering is very abundant and long in the middle of summer.
They practically do not require care, do not get sick, are very cold-resistant, hibernate without shelter. Such clematis go well with large-flowered varieties and complement each other in color. White color suits any other, especially dark, so characteristic of many unpretentious varieties of clematis. Herbaceous clematis are a wonderful background for almost any flower garden.
Clematis Fargesioides, "Paul Farges". Often this species (or variety, according to other authors) is called "Summer Snow" for a very long and abundant flowering of small white flowers, similar to the flowers of straight clematis. It is a vigorous shrub vine that can cover large vertical areas. Clematis belongs to the third pruning group, as it blooms on the shoots of the current year, but it often persists in winter and can bloom on old shoots. Very unpretentious, stable, healthy clematis, especially valuable if the conditions are not suitable for growing varietal clematis.
Large-flowered varietal clematis
Varietal clematis, depending on the origin on the maternal line, are usually divided into groups:
- Viticella - violet clematis (Viticella);
- Zhakman - (Jackmanii);
- Lanuginosa - woolly clematis (Lanuginosa);
- Patens - spreading clematis (Patens);
- Florida - flowering clematis (Florida);
- Integrifolia - whole-leaf clematis (Integrifolia).
Hagley Hybrid Clematis
Varieties of the Vititsella and Zhakmana groups are shrub vines with good shoot-forming ability, 3-4 meters high, blooming on the shoots of the current year (the third pruning group). They are dominated by dark blue-violet-purple tones, medium and large flowers. These are the most resistant, unpretentious and winter-hardy varieties in our conditions. Among them there are many old foreign and domestic varieties that have not lost their popularity. Often found in our gardens are varieties such as Hagley Hibrid, Ville de Lyon, Luter Berbank, Gipsy Queen, Victoria, Rouge Cardinal, Niobe
Varieties of the Lanuginoza group are usually no more than 2.5 meters high, flowers of light colors are large and very large up to 20 cm in diameter. These clematis bloom in early summer on old shoots, and then in the second half on shoots of the current year (second pruning group). Most varieties are more whimsical, less winter-hardy, they need high-quality shelter for the winter, especially since it is desirable to keep their shoots in winter.
The value of the varieties of this group, first of all, is that their flowers are very beautiful, large, light shades, often with a brighter central stripe. By preserving the shoots in winter, such varieties can get continuous flowering from June to frost. The most famous varieties: white - Valge Daam, lilac - Ball of flowers, white - Ballerina, pink with a stripe - Nadezhda.
The varieties of the Patens group are interesting for their bright, abundant flowering, varied in color. Among them there are many two-color, double-colored varieties, there are also compact varieties suitable for containers. Flowering occurs on last year's shoots in the early stages, and then on young ones - in the second half of summer (second pruning group). In many varieties, the second flowering is less abundant, the flowers are smaller than the first flowering.
Clematis of this group are often more capricious in our conditions, they winter worse. But you shouldn't give them up. Now on sale there are quite interesting varieties from this group. Many of them bloom very abundantly on the shoots of the current year, retain their doubleness on young shoots, and winter well with proper cover. There are good varieties that belong to the Patens-Jacquemann group. Here are some that have proven themselves in our environment: Multi Blue, Blue Light, President, Nelly Moser, Piilu and others.
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Varieties of the Florida group are not very common in our country. The main disadvantage is low winter hardiness, the need for careful shelter, as well as belonging to the first or second pruning groups.
The varieties of the Integrifolia group are few in number, of the more common varieties are Alenushka, Anastasia Anisimova. Clematis of these varieties are climbing vines that cannot cling to a support, requiring a special garter. They bloom profusely and continuously on the shoots of the current year, they can be cut in the fall to ground level (third pruning group). With minimal shelter, they winter reliably in our climate.
Until recently, it was considered mandatory when describing varieties to indicate their group of origin, for example: Luther Burbank (Jacques) or Valge Daam (Lan.). In recent years, many varieties of complex origin have appeared, for which it is difficult to define a group. This led to the fact that now, to characterize the variety, instead of the group by origin, they indicate the pruning group: 1 - weak, 2 - weak, 3 - strong, or 2-3, if clematis can be pruned in different ways.
When choosing varieties, you need to pay attention to the specified trim group. Varieties of the third group are always easier to grow. You should not give up the varieties of the second group, you just need to find out how abundantly the variety blooms on young shoots, and whether this flowering will not be too late. Of clematis with the first pruning group, it is advisable to grow only cold-resistant ones, which can winter on supports.
Shelter of clematis
Victoria variety clematis
In the fall, before the shelter, clematis are trimmed in accordance with their trimming group.
If clematis of the first pruning group winter on a support (princes), they can not be pruned in the fall. Faded parts of shoots and parts damaged in winter are easier to cut off in spring. Clematis of the first pruning group that need shelter can be partially pruned in the fall. It is very difficult to remove them from the support. It is better to use a net as a support, which in the fall can be lowered along with clematis, laid on the ground, placing spruce branches or some kind of low support, and then covered with a non-woven material (lutrasil).
In clematis of the second pruning group, the upper part of the shoots with flowers at a height of about one meter is removed, old shoots, broken or very weak, are completely cut out. It is quite difficult to carefully remove the lashes from the support without damaging them, therefore, for such clematis, it is advisable to specially think over the design of the supports to facilitate this work.
The third pruning group allows you to cut the lashes completely near the ground, but this should only be done in herbaceous species (recta). In woody lianas, it is better to cut the whips at a height of 15-30 cm at the level of real leaves. This allows you to preserve a large number of well-developed buds, which will start growing in the first place.
Another approach is also possible: all clematis (groups 2 and 3) are cut at a height of 0.5-1 m. and cuttings. On plants with a large number of shoots, you can leave some of the shoots by removing the weaker, thinner ones.
All clematis need to be covered with earth, peat, sawdust. It is very useful to pour coarse sand in the center of the bush. It is better to remove the leaves from the lashes. If clematis will be covered with polyethylene, it is imperative to do this, because the leaves left on the whips can rot.
The preserved lashes are carefully laid on the ground, preferably with a lining of spruce branches, trellises, etc. You can immediately cover them with two layers of dense covering material (lutrasil, spunbond). But it is better to make a support from boards, slats, laid on bricks, or use boxes. Plastic fruit boxes are very convenient for sheltering plants. If clematis are located in places where water can pour on them in winter, or in a colder place, as well as for more thermophilic varieties, it is better to cover the plants with polyethylene over the lutrasil.
You need to close it so that the sides of the shelter are without polyethylene and are ventilated. In this case, it is necessary to huddle with dry soil, and the support must be strong enough so that the clematis covered with a film are not pressed to the ground. For many resistant cultivars, cut short and growing in favorable conditions, hilling is sufficient for successful wintering.
Read the next part. Reproduction of clematis, diseases and pests, use in garden design →
Tatyana Popova, gardener
Photo by Vladimir Popov