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Features Of Clematis, Choosing A Place For Planting, Pruning Groups
Features Of Clematis, Choosing A Place For Planting, Pruning Groups

Video: Features Of Clematis, Choosing A Place For Planting, Pruning Groups

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Video: Clematis Pruning Groups 2023, February
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Biological features of clematis

clematis
clematis

Clematis

Clematis is practically the only liana comparable in beauty to roses. This is one of the most beloved plants in our garden. The variety of species and varieties, abundant and long flowering, brightness and variety of colors make clematis indispensable for garden decoration.

The genus clematis (Clematis) belongs to the ranunculaceae family (Ranunculaceae). There are a huge number of wild species of clematis. On the basis of some of them, the whole variety of varieties of hybrid clematis was obtained. They are often called large-flowered. A number of species clematis, their forms and varieties close to species, are also widely used in horticulture. They are called botanical, small-flowered clematis.

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Clematis are deciduous perennials, less often evergreens, usually shrubby leaf-climbing lianas. Such clematis climb the support, clinging to it with twisting leaf stalks. There are species and varieties - climbing vines that are not able to independently climb the support, as well as semi-shrub and herbaceous plants with erect stems.

The roots of most clematis are long, cord-like, weakly branched, extending into the ground to a depth of one meter. This structure of the roots and the depth of their occurrence must be taken into account when planting and caring for clematis. These plants do not have a sharp border between the roots and the aerial part, usually called the neck. Clematis have a so-called tillering center - an interweaving of underground parts of the stems and roots extending from them. There is a large number of kidneys with varying degrees of development, including dormant ones. Preservation of the center of tillering in winter, the absence of diseases in this zone determines the appearance and durability of clematis.

Clematis stems consist of individual internodes, they are connected by nodes with a pair of leaves, in the axils of which the buds are located. In the lower part of the stem and on the roots, there are dormant buds, from which new shoots grow, so that if the aboveground part dies, it is then restored.

Usually, three parts are distinguished on the shoots: the lower one - with simple leaves and a large number of developed buds; the middle one is vegetative with leaves and shoots of the second order and the top one is generative with buds and flowers.

clematis
clematis

Clematis, Ruetel variety

In high clematis (3-4 m), flowering is usually concentrated in the upper part of the plant, and this must be taken into account when choosing a place and support. Such tall clematis look good only from a certain distance, it is good when the shoots tilt down the support, arch.

In low clematis (1.5-2.5 m), the vegetative and generative parts can be practically combined. Clematis is covered with flowers almost along its entire height, but this creates difficulties when propagating by cuttings, since only the vegetative part of the shoot goes to the cuttings.

Clematis leaves are arranged on the stem in opposite pairs, but not flat along the stem, but turned 90 degrees, i.e. pairs are arranged crosswise between themselves. In most species and varieties, the leaves are complex with 5-7 or 9 leaves, the lowest leaves are usually simple.

The flower of clematis consists of 4-8 colored petal sepals (perianth), numerous stamens and pistils. The shape, size and color of the perianth are very diverse and characteristic for each species or variety. Fruits-nuts, collected in seed, are often fluffy, adorn clematis after flowering.

Features of flowering clematis. Clipping groups

clematis
clematis

Clematis. Variety Arctic Queen

For clematis, the concept of "pruning group" is introduced, which characterizes the plant's ability to bloom on shoots of different ages and determines the ability to cut shoots for the winter. There are three trim groups.

The first group is weak pruning. It includes those species and varieties that bloom only on biennial and older shoots, they cannot be cut short, it is important for them to preserve the shoots in winter. Such clematis undergo only sanitary pruning and removal of faded inflorescences.

They are combined into the "First Clipping Group". It is good if these are cold-resistant species that can winter on supports. If clematis of this group winter poorly, they have to be removed from supports, laid on the ground and covered, which greatly increases the complexity of caring for them and limits their use.

The second group is weak pruning. This group includes clematis, which can bloom on both old and young shoots. Usually, such clematis bloom early (May - June) on last year's shoots, and then in July-September (depending on the variety) on the shoots of the current year. The flowers of the first flowering are usually larger, sometimes double, and the second - smaller and not double. There are varieties that bloom with double flowers on any shoots.

The flowering intensity of the first and second periods, as well as their timing, may be different. If such clematis are cut loosely, leaving most of the shoot (usually 1-1.5 meters), they will bloom twice, or their flowering will stretch all summer. If the shoots are cut short, or if they do not survive in winter, clematis of this group will bloom once and at a later date. For these varieties, a high-quality shelter is important to preserve the shoots in winter.

When choosing such varieties, it is important to assess the abundance of second flowering on young shoots and the timing of this flowering. If the varieties of the second pruning group bloom more abundantly on old shoots, and their second flowering is too late (the second half of August - September), in our conditions it is better to refuse such varieties.

The third pruning group is heavy pruning. Clematis of this group bloom profusely on the shoots of the current year, for them there is no need to keep the shoots in winter, you can cut them off shortly. This greatly simplifies their shelter and all agricultural technology in general. Pruning can be carried out near the ground, but it is better to leave the lower part of the shoot 15-20 cm long, which gives an increase in the number of shoots due to the buds of the lower part and leads to earlier flowering. It is possible to leave longer shoots in such varieties in the fall, achieving earlier flowering.

Now there are quite a few varieties that bloom well with both weak and strong pruning. They are arbitrarily assigned to the second or third group, and are often written: 2-3 trimming group.

Requirements of clematis for growth conditions

clematis
clematis

Clematis, variety Negus

1. Light. Clematis are photophilous, but in warm climates they are often advised to be planted in partial shade so that the root zone does not overheat. In our climate, with few sunny days and low average temperatures, all large-flowered clematis are best planted in the sun.

Small-flowered species and varieties grow well both in the sun and in partial shade. The direction of the lighting is also important. Clematis always turn flowers in the direction of the greatest illumination and, if planting is unsuccessful, can completely turn away from the audience.

2. Warmth. Only small-flowered clematis are cold-resistant. Large-flowered clematis, depending on the group, can be more or less thermophilic. The most cold-resistant varieties are from the Vititsella and Zhakman groups, but they also need at least the simplest shelter for reliable wintering. Other varieties need a warmer shelter (see the Shelter section below), especially if it is necessary to preserve the shoots in winter. Not too strong spring frosts usually do not harm clematis.

3. Moisture. Clematis are large plants with a large leaf area that evaporate a lot of moisture, so they need abundant watering in dry weather. Their roots are deep, so watering should be rare, but it is advisable to wet the soil to a sufficiently large depth. Clematis cannot stand it when water is poured from the roof on them during the rain, this must be taken into account when planting these plants near buildings. They do not tolerate high standing groundwater, as well as flooding in autumn or spring.

4. Soil. Clematis need soil rich in organic matter and all macro- and micronutrients. The soil must be sufficiently water-absorbing, water- and air-permeable. Acidic soil is unacceptable, liming should be carried out both during planting and in subsequent years. Clematis need a significant amount of calcium, especially in the spring, during the growth of the shoots.

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Choosing a place for planting clematis

clematis
clematis

Clematis. Variety Tex

Clematis is a very important element of vertical gardening of the site, and the choice of a place for planting must be taken seriously. In places that are unsuccessful in terms of growing conditions, they will be oppressed, they will not give abundant flowering, they may even die. It is equally important that clematis planting give the maximum decorative effect.

It is very important to consider the supports for these plants, taking into account the characteristics of the varieties and the planting site.

For clematis, light places protected from the wind are chosen, where cold air and soil moisture do not stagnate. Groundwater should not rise above 1.5 meters. In the case of planting plants near a house or other buildings, the distance from clematis to them should be at least 0.5-0.7 meters.

Particular attention should be paid to planting these lianas near buildings under which the soil freezes strongly, for example, verandas on a raised foundation, gazebos, etc. In such places, clematis can freeze severely due to lateral soil freezing. When planting, you need to move away from the building as much as possible and provide for warming the soil between the clematis and the structure.

Bushes and trees with powerful roots must be separated from the clematis by an obstacle of at least 70-80 cm deep, and clematis must be planted at a distance of at least 1 m from them. Planting clematis next to roses, as my experience shows, is not harmful to either one or the other. This composition looks very good.

Clematis do not like overheating of the soil, so it is good to foresee planting perennials with not too powerful roots (phlox, astilbe, and others) or annuals in front of them. In addition to shading the soil, these additional plants will cover the lower, often bare part of the shoots.

The ratio of the height of clematis and the distance from which we will admire it is very important. If this distance is small and the clematis is high enough, this discrepancy can be eliminated by using a lower support along which the clematis shoots will go down. When planting, you need to take into account the direction of maximum illumination, because the flowers of clematis are always directed towards the light.

Read the next part. Planting and care calendar for clematis →

Tatyana Popova, gardener

Photo by Vladimir Popov

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