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Types And Varieties Of Verbena
Types And Varieties Of Verbena

Video: Types And Varieties Of Verbena

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Video: Verbena types and varieties 2023, February
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Read part 1. ← Verbeynik: cultivation, types and varieties, application

Verbena description

verbena
verbena

Verbena is one of the most powerful and mystical plants. Quite often the name of this plant is found in old books.

The priests of the Celts prepared magic and secret drinks from it, they were sure that with its help any disease could be cured.

The ancient Greeks and Romans also considered verbena to be a sacred plant.

In Scandinavia and in ancient Persia, they were also convinced that verbena is a sacred and magical herb. The early Christians called the verbena the "grass of the cross" because it was watered with the blood of the crucified Christ.

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verbena
verbena

Verbena is a traditional ingredient in love potions. There is a belief that its undiluted juice contributes to the fulfillment of desires and makes people immune to diseases, endows with the gift of clairvoyance and protects from evil spells.

Verbena cleans the house well and removes evil spirits and demons. It is very useful to plant it near the house, as it protects from everything negative, and is also able to attract positive energy to increase wealth. Verbena prolongs youth if you carry it with you.

The common Slavic word "verbena" comes from an ancient Indo-European root and is translated from Latin as "sacred branch". Priests were crowned with such branches during sacrifices. In France it was also called "the herb of the sorcerers".

Verbena is a herbaceous plant or a small shrub. In warm climates, it can develop as a perennial; in the northern regions, it is cultivated as an annual. Plant height from 25 cm to 1 m or more. Stems edged, glabrous or pubescent, erect or creeping.

Leaves are small, covered with hard hairs, lanceolate or oval-elongated, with jagged edges. Verbena flowers are small, corolla with five petals, collected in corymbose inflorescences. The color of the corolla is varied - scarlet, pink, cream, white, purple, yellow, often with a light eye in the center. Verbena varieties have also been bred with two-color flowers. The seeds are very small and ripen in a capsule. It blooms from June until frost.

In nature, verbena grows in clearings, ravines and meadows. The plant is unpretentious and capable of rising to a height of 1200 meters above sea level.

Verbena belongs to the verbena family. In total, the genus includes about 250 plant species, common in North and South America, in many European countries, in Central Asia, in the Far East and the Caucasus.

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The main types and varieties of verbena

verbena
verbena

Currently, about 40 species of verbena are cultivated.

Verbena hybrid (Verbena x hybrida hort). One of the most numerous species obtained by complex crossing, mainly of North American verbena species. This is a herbaceous perennial or shrub, which in our conditions is grown as an annual.

The root system is fibrous, the stem is highly branched, up to 45 cm high, tetrahedral. All green parts of the plant are covered with tough hairs. The flowers are fragrant, usually white, pink, red, blue or purple. She has been in culture since 1830. Seeds remain viable for 1-2 years.

New, more compact and resistant to powdery mildew hybrid varieties are very good, for example, Temari, Tapien, Tukana, Lanai, Rapunzel series. Their color palette is very rich: there are purple, apricot, and bright pink flowers. The new varieties have more lush inflorescences. Ampel varieties look especially beautiful.

Verbena Canadian (Verbena canadensis). Her homeland is North America. It is a perennial herb cultivated as an annual. Stems are thin, 15-20 cm long. The leaves are oval, elongated, pointed, deeply divided, wedge-shaped at the base. The buds are collected in bunches, the flowers are purple, lilac, pink or white. Blooms very profusely from June until frost. In culture since 1774.

verbena
verbena

Hard verbena (Verbena rigida Spreng). Her homeland is Central and South America. A perennial herb cultivated as an annual. Stems are branched, creeping, tetrahedral. Leaves are hard, elongated with sharply protruding veins and stiff hairs below.

The flowers are small, up to 1 cm in diameter, pale blue, lilac or lilac-purple, collected in complex inflorescences. It blooms very profusely from June to frost. Seeds remain viable for up to 5 years. In culture since 1830.

Verbena of Buenos Aires (Verbena bonariensis L.), which is also called Argentine verbena, tall or beautiful. Her homeland is South America. A perennial plant grown as an annual. It grows in the form of large, up to 170 cm tall, erect bushes with a well-defined main stem and side shoots extending from the base. The leaves are lanceolate, elongated, dentate along the edge, opposite.

The flowers are small, painted in violet-pink shades, collected in spikelets, which in turn form numerous umbrella-shaped inflorescences. Blooms profusely and continuously until frost. You need to plant Argentine verbena at least 10 plants in a group and behind other, lower plants that will hide the bare stems of this verbena.

Verbena spear (Verbena hastate) or blue verbena is a medicinal, perennial plant of the damp shores of lakes and rivers, marshy forests of North America. Often grows in European gardens. Its blue flowers are much more popular than the small flowers of the officinalis verbena. Blooms in late summer. Plant height up to 150 cm.

Direct Verbena (Verbena stricta) - a perennial plant in North America with lush gray-green leaves and beautiful blue-purple flowers. Leaves are sessile, oval with a serrated edge. The plant has a height of 150 cm. It blooms from July to September.

Verbena officinalis (Verbena officinalis L.) belongs to the Verbenov family, genus Verbena (Verbenaceae). Among the people, the following names for medicinal verbena are often found - the tear of Juno, the vein of Venus, the blood of Mercury, the holy herb, the Grace herb, the pigeon herb, the witch's plant, van van, iron ore, the seventh herb of Venus, dry non-horsetail, zalinyak.

verbena
verbena

Verbena officinalis is a perennial plant, reaching a height of 30-80 cm (up to 100 cm). Stem - erect, tetrahedral, branching at the top, slightly rough.

Leaves are opposite, oblong on short petioles. Numerous flowers are collected in spike-shaped axillary inflorescences. The flowers are divided into five petals and are found in white, pink, pale blue or purple.

The fruit is wrinkled, brown or brown, nut-shaped. Verbena officinalis blooms from June to September. Propagated by seeds. The homeland of this plant is Europe. But it also grows in tropical and temperate climates in Africa, Asia, Australia, Central and North America. On the territory of Russia, verbena grows in nature in more southern regions. It grows in the steppes, glades, meadows, wastelands, along the banks of streams and rivers.

I would like to draw your attention to another very interesting plant Lemon Verbena or Lipia (Verbena triphylla l'Herit., Lippia citriodora Kunth., Aloyisia citriodora Ort.). This plant is also of the Verbenov family but of the genus Aloysia. The shrub of this verbena grows in South America and Europe. As an ornamental plant, it is grown in the Crimea and the Caucasus. It is cultivated in France for its essential oil. Lemon verbena is grown in pots on balconies, terraces and greenhouses. The growing season usually begins in May and ends in autumn.

In mild and temperate climates, it can overwinter in the fresh air, even survive in the open field. If the plant is grown in a pot, then for the winter it must be placed in a frost-free room with a temperature of at least + 5 ° C. Watering is necessary only when the soil is too dry. Transplant lemon verbena in late winter or early spring into a new larger pot. It propagates by seeds and cuttings.

Lemon verbena has a pleasant lemon scent of leaves, which allows it to be used both fresh and dried. Its medicinal properties are similar to those of vervain officinalis and spear vervain. Lemon verbena is used to treat asthma, colds, fever, and indigestion. Helps with nervous disorders and disorders in the digestive system.

Dry leaves are used to brew tea, which has a refreshing effect and helps to restore the liver after excessive drinking. Verbena leaf tea is believed to be a good hangover cure. Tea or infusion can be used as a mild antipyretic agent. This verbena has a mild sedative effect and helps with insomnia. The oil of lemon verbena is especially appreciated, its medicinal and cosmetic properties have been scientifically proven.

Lemon verbena leaves have a very strong lemon scent, which is widely used in cooking and perfumery.

Read part 4. Conditions for growing verbena →

Tatyana Lybina, gardener

Zhezkazgan, Republic of Kazakhstan

Photo by the author

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