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Raspberry Remontant. Part 5
Raspberry Remontant. Part 5

Video: Raspberry Remontant. Part 5

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Ремонтантная малина на второй год.framboesas remontant remontant raspberries 2023, January
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Raspberry remont: part 1, part 2, part 3, part 4, part 5, part 6

Fight against diseases and pests of raspberries

As I have already noted, one of the main advantages of remontant raspberries is its increased resistance compared to varieties of ordinary raspberries to major diseases and pests.

However, many years of experience in growing remontant raspberries at the Kokinsky base of the All-Russian Selection and Technological Institute of Horticulture and Nursery (VSTISP), operating on the basis of the Bryansk Agricultural Academy, showed that in some cases, remontant raspberries also need protection. Gardeners should be aware of these "special cases" and should not allow them when cultivating remontant raspberries on their plots.

Raspberry pests

Experiments have shown that it is impossible to allow joint cultivation of varieties of common raspberry and remontant raspberry on the same site, since the first flowers of early varieties of remontant raspberry can be damaged by

raspberry beetles, the larvae of which nest in large numbers inside the berries of late varieties of common raspberry. Therefore, when laying plantings of remontant raspberries, one should strive to place them as far as possible from the plantings of ordinary raspberries.

If you fail to do this, then all early flowering and early ripening varieties of remontant raspberries can be treated before flowering with insecticidal biological preparations, the least harmful to human health, such as Agrovertin and Fitosporin.

Do not overfeed remontant raspberry plants with too high doses of nitrogen fertilizers, in which leaves and young shoots grow juicy, very tender and attractive to insect pests - various

caterpillars and

aphids.

Gardeners should be aware that the use of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, on the contrary, reduces the number of pests, since such nutrition changes the chemical composition of plants, which form leaves and stems that are more coarse and unattractive to pests.

If, nevertheless, caterpillars and aphids attacked remontant raspberries, the plantings should be treated with one of the above biological preparations, but always before flowering plants.

In hot and dry weather, remontant raspberries can be damaged

a spider mite, and in a cold, rainy summer - a

raspberry mite. These pests are very small and difficult to see with the naked eye. Both of them infect the leaves of raspberry plants.

Leaves affected by spider mites have a dull color, curl, turn brown and dry out. At the same time, a very thin cobweb is noticeable on the inner side of the sheet.

Leaves damaged by a raspberry mite become covered with pale green oily spots and become ugly.

In order to prevent chemical preparations from entering the backyard gardens, herbal preparations are recommended for gardeners - an infusion of garlic or onion peels, which give good results in the fight against ticks. To prepare infusions for 10 liters of water, take 100 g of onion husks or chopped garlic (passed through a meat grinder), insist for 1-3 days, filter and add 30-50 g of laundry soap diluted in warm water for better wetting of the leaves.

Against aphids, ticks and other leaf-eating and sucking pests, another practically harmless preparation from wood ash is successfully used. To do this, prepare an extract (infusion) in 5 liters of water, pouring a half-liter can of wood ash into the water. Separately, in a small volume of warm water, dilute 50 g of household (preferably green) soap. Both solutions are mixed, having previously filtered, and a kerosene emulsion is added to the mixture. This emulsion is prepared as follows: half of pure cold water is poured into a small bottle (30-50 ml) and 1 teaspoon or 1 dessert spoon of kerosene is added. The bottle is tightly closed and vigorously shaken for several minutes, making sure that there is no kerosene film on the surface of the water, and the water becomes evenly cloudy. All solutions are mixed, brought to 10 liters and immediately used to spray the affected plants.

Gardeners also need to know about the biological method of raspberry pest control in order to use it on their sites. The essence of this method lies in the use of natural enemies of harmful insects. Experiments have found that only one seven-spotted aphid (ladybug) destroys up to 5000 aphids during the summer. The beneficial insects also include the lacewing, hoverfly fly larvae, the ridge apanteles, dragonflies, etc. To attract these insects to the garden, you need to sow dill, anise, and coriander near the raspberry plantation, since the flowering plants of these green crops willingly visit beneficial insects, feeding on their nectar …

Raspberry diseases

Raspberry anthracnose
Raspberry anthracnose

As for

fungal diseases, then, as already mentioned above, thanks to the original agricultural technology of growing remontant raspberries with annual podzimny mowing of shoots, it is much less damaged by various fungal diseases or not damaged at all, provided that all agricultural rules are observed. This is due to the fact that spores - causative agents of diseases - hibernate mainly on plant residues. With proper care, no aerial part and no last year's plant residues should remain on the remontant raspberry plantation. This means that there should be no pathogens left. But in the event that next to the remontant raspberry there are plantings of ordinary or wild-growing raspberries, infection with pathogens of fungal infection and varieties of remontant raspberries can occur.

In rare cases, fungal diseases such as didymella (purple spot), anthracnose, septoria (white spot), and verticillary wilt have been reported on varieties of remontant raspberry. Therefore, gardeners should be aware of the signs of these diseases in order to take appropriate measures if they are found on their sites. Moreover, on the landings of ordinary raspberries.

Didymella, or

purple spot, widespread in all regions of common raspberry cultivation both in our country and abroad. The disease manifests itself in the second half of summer on young shoots at the point of attachment of the leaf petiole in the form of dark purple spots, gradually becoming brown-brown, ringing the shoots. Further, the disease manifests itself on the leaves in the form of large brown spots with a wide yellow border.

In plants affected by

didimella, there is a massive drying out of shoots, death of buds, and a sharp decrease in winter hardiness. The spores of the fungus mature in July - August, infecting new plants, especially in wet weather.

Anthracnosemanifests itself in early June on annual shoots in the form of single grayish-white spots with a wide purple border. Later, the spots grow and take the form of sunken ulcers of a silvery-gray color with purple edges, corked and cracked in the middle. On the leaves, the tissue in the place where the stain becomes brown dies off, holes appear in these places.

Septoria

White spot or raspberry septoria
White spot or raspberry septoria
most clearly manifested not on the shoots, but on the leaves of raspberries. They initially develop small, rounded, pale brown spots. Then they turn pale and are bordered by a thin brown rim. Over time, the spots merge with each other, in the places where they merge, the tissue turns brown, collapses and falls out. On the shoots, the spots are hardly noticeable, vague, but by August the affected tissue begins to crack up and down, the bark peels off. The death of buds affected by septoria is often observed, especially in the middle of the shoots. In rainy seasons, the leaves and thin twigs become licky, the underdeveloped berries rot, and eventually the fruit twigs die prematurely.

Control measures against diamella, anthracnose and septoria are similar. They boil down to growing raspberries in well-ventilated, non-thickened plantings, to preventing waterlogging of the soil and excessive application of nitrogen fertilizers. And for remontant raspberries - to the inadmissibility of joint plantings with common raspberries.

Verticillium wilt, or

wilt, affects the vascular system of raspberries, causing the death of shoots. The causative agent of the disease lives in the soil, from there it penetrates the roots of plants through wounds and mechanical damage. As a result, the roots partially die off, the tops of the shoots wither and dry out, bluish dark stripes appear on the shoots, the bark cracks, the shoot begins to fade. The disease is most pronounced on heavy soils during hot and dry summers. Plants affected by wilt must be dug up and burned. When establishing new plantings, you should use only healthy planting material from specialized nurseries. You should also try not to use the places where strawberries, potatoes, tomatoes grew in the previous year, which, like raspberries, are prone to wilt disease, for planting raspberry seedlings.

Raspberry bacterial cancer
Raspberry bacterial cancer

Of

bacterial diseases affecting raspberries, the most common is

bacterial measles, or

root goiter. This disease manifests itself on the roots, root collar and rhizome in the form of lumpy, at first light, then brown growths, similar to nodules of various sizes. With a strong defeat by bacterial root cancer, especially in dry weather, plant growth is weakened, the leaves turn yellow, the berries become smaller and lose their taste.

Most researchers do not consider root cancer a dangerous disease of raspberries, but in nurseries it can cause significant damage, since the affected seedlings are rejected. In conditions of sufficient moisture, after a while, the growths on the roots disappear, and the plants develop normally.

Root cancer pathogens live in soil, especially in neutral and slightly alkaline soils. On weakly acidic soils and subject to the introduction of physiologically acidic mineral fertilizers (urea, superphosphate), the damage to plants by root cancer is significantly reduced.

When laying new plantings of raspberries, you need to carefully examine the seedlings and, if you find nodule tubercles on the roots, cut them out and treat the roots with a 1% solution of copper sulfate (100 g per 10 l of water) for 5 minutes, then rinse them well in water. The plowing of green manures, especially mustard and rapeseed, into the soil significantly reduces the degree of plant damage by root cancer.

Despite the fact that raspberry root cancer is not considered a dangerous disease, gardeners need to know about it and, if it manifests itself, take preventive measures to prevent its spread.

Unlike root cancer, when growing raspberries, including remontant, various viral diseases are a serious proble

.

The causative agents of viral diseases (viruses) are the smallest protein compounds that can reproduce only in living plant cells. Infection with viruses occurs when the juice of a diseased plant gets on the damaged tissue of a healthy plant. Viral diseases are transmitted mainly by aphids, leafhoppers, plant mites, and nematodes. In some cases, the source of infection can be the pollen of diseased plants. Infection with viruses through tools when pruning plants, when digging and loosening the soil in raspberry plantations is not excluded. During vegetative propagation of infected plants, all offspring will also be infected. A plant infected with viruses never recovers.

Curliness, infectious chlorosis, bushy dwarfism, mosaic are considered the most dangerous and common viral diseases of raspberries. In addition, raspberries are damaged by the so-called mycoplasma overgrowth, which is similar in nature to viruses.

Curliness. The causative agent of this disease - the raspberry ring spot virus is transmitted from plant to plant by aphids and nematodes. The disease manifests itself on shoots, leaves, inflorescences and berries. Diseased shoots are shorter and thicker than healthy ones. The leaves become dark green, hard, wrinkled with edges bent downwards, by autumn they acquire a bronze-brown color. The fruit twigs are deformed, the berries dry up on them. Plants affected by curliness grow poorly, their tops dry out.

With a strong infection with curl, yield losses can be 50-60% or more. The disease spreads with planting material.

Infectious chlorosis, or

jaundice, is a widespread viral disease transmitted by aphids. The disease manifests itself in early summer. The leaves turn yellow first between the veins, then the entire leaf takes on a yellow color. Often, damaged leaves twist and shrivel asymmetrically. The shoots become thinner and longer. The berries become smaller, deformed, lose their taste and dry out.

Bushy dwarfism

Infectious chlorosis
Infectious chlorosis

- This is the only viral disease of raspberries that does not have vectors among insects. The virus is transmitted from a diseased plant to a healthy one with pollen, which can be transported over long distances. A very dangerous feature of bushy dwarfism is that diseased plants do not differ in appearance from healthy ones. The sign of this virus can be seen only on ripening berries. Berries on bushes affected by bushy dwarfism are poorly executed, they consist of separate, loosely interconnected drupes (the so-called "loose").

Mosaic… This name unites a complex of viral diseases of raspberries, carried by aphids (chlorosis of veins, yellow reticulation, ring spot - a virus that damages both tomato and raspberry, latent necrosis). Diseases are especially severe in wet, cool weather. In hot weather, symptoms may subside.

The disease manifests itself in the form of a mosaic color of leaves of various intensities. With a strong lesion, convex areas appear on the leaves, in places of yellow spots the leaf blade becomes thinner. Diseased plants are lagging behind in growth, their shoots become thinner, the berries become smaller, become tasteless. Often, the bushes affected by the mosaic die.

Overgrowth, or

"witch's broom", manifests itself in the form of development on one raspberry bush up to a hundred or more refined low-growing shoots. The leaves on such shoots have a chlorous tint, the flowers are deformed, and ovaries are often not formed from them. Bushes affected by overgrowth, before dying, can live up to 10 years, all this time being the source of a dangerous disease in the garden.

Considering that there is no recovery from viral and mycoplasma diseases, it is necessary to conduct a regular examination of raspberry plantations, identify diseased plants, dig them out, remove them from the site and burn them. In place of removed affected plants, new ones should not be planted. It is necessary to maintain a high level of agricultural technology with the obligatory introduction of optimal doses of organic and mineral fertilizers that increase the resistance of plants to infection, to fight disease vectors (aphids, leafhoppers, nematodes, etc.) from common raspberries.

Read the rest of the article:

Raspberry remontant. Part 6

Galina Alexandrova,

candidate of agricultural sciences

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