Table of contents:
- Acclimatization and grafting of cherries
- Planting cherries
- Shaping and pruning
- Diseases and pests
- The use of cherries in the landscape
Video: Selection Of Varieties And Cultivation Of Cherries In Summer Cottages And In Gardening - 2
2023 Author: Sebastian Paterson | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 05:47
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Acclimatization and grafting of cherries
There are also promising
hybrid cherry-cherry varieties, for example,
English early (synonyms -
English early ripening, Early May, May red),
Black consumer goodsand others that are close to sweet cherries in terms of taste. Seedlings grown from their seeds can favorably deviate towards cherries in terms of winter hardiness, and towards cherries in terms of fruit quality. You can also try to acclimatize them. But since they will have a splitting of signs and properties both in the direction of cherries and cherries, the selection itself will be much more difficult for them. We will have to wait for the appearance of fruits, and not only focus on the winter hardiness of seedlings and seedlings. After all, it is possible that, in terms of the quality of the fruits, they can deviate towards the cherry, and in terms of the winter hardiness of the trunks and crown, they will receive the properties of a cherry, which is undesirable.
vegetative propagationcherries are grafted onto cherries well, but this grafting makes little sense. But cherries are grafted onto cherries much worse, although such a grafting is very useful and promising, since it allows the grafted plants to be significantly promoted much north of the zone of usual cherry growing. In the Northwest, it is cherry that is the only acceptable rootstock for sweet cherry during its vegetative propagation. Grafted on rootstocks of local varieties of winter-hardy cherries (seedlings of Vladimirskaya and Lyubskaya are most suitable as such), cherries acquire higher frost and winter hardiness, dwarf or semi-dwarf growth. It can be grown even in the form of a bush up to 2.5 m tall, which is especially beneficial for the harsh conditions of the Non-Black Earth Region. It also becomes less demanding on soil fertility, withstands a closer occurrence of groundwater. In addition, such plants begin to bear fruit 2-3 years earlier. But such cherries on cherries are less durable. In addition, the disadvantage of cherry stock is that it forms abundant growth, which you have to constantly fight. Grafting cherries not on the stock, but directly into the crown of the cherry, allows you to further increase its winter hardiness.
Soilsweet cherry prefers light texture, sandy, sandy loam, light loamy, but nutritious enough, well heated, permeable to water and air, moderately moist. She also loves liming. Lime is added at the rate of 1% of the mass of the fertile soil horizon. But too much of it can be harmful too. On soils with a heavy texture, sweet cherry grows and develops poorly. She also does not tolerate waterlogging. The groundwater level should not be higher than 2 m. To soil moisture, it is moderately demanding, it needs sufficient, but not excessive moisture. It does not tolerate too dry soils, it grows poorly and bears fruit on them, or requires regular watering. Relative dryness and excessive humidity (constant rain) is equally bad. In the first case, premature leaf fall occurs,and in the second, the fruits crack and rot, being struck by gray fruit rot.
It is best to plant cherries in the Non-Black Earth Region on the slopes of hills with a southern or southwestern exposure, in places protected from the wind and provided with a thick snow cover in winter. It should be avoided placing it in closed depressions (hollows). And on the northern side, it is desirable to have protection from unfavorable natural and climatic conditions (wall of a house, a number of winter-hardy trees, etc.). It is better to form planting cherries in our conditions in the form of bushes with 3-4 trunks. The soil should be light and well warmed up. And it is better to place the plants somewhat thickened with a distance of about three meters between them.
Cherries are plantedin pits 100 cm wide and 60 cm deep, well filled with humus and fertilizers. Landing technology is standard. Planting material is one-year-old. It is best to transplant in early spring. After planting, the near-trunk circle must be watered, loosened and mulched (with manure, sawdust, etc.). In the future, the soil of the trunks is kept under black steam. Planting spacings up to ten years of age can be used for undersized vegetable crops (legumes, root crops, potatoes, etc.) with their annual change. At a more mature age, it is possible to tin the trunk circles, but this is not a dogma. At the same time, on the slopes, to prevent soil washout, it is carried out from the first years of the tree's life. Annual mulching also has a positive effect.
mineral fertilizers and
manure for cherries is best applied in spring or early summer. It is possible in late autumn, after the end of the growing season, to a depth of up to 20 cm. Because of its vigorous growth, sweet cherry cannot be a compacting breed.
Shaping and pruning
crown shape for cherries is a sparse-tiered one. The first crown pruning is carried out in the spring, shortly after planting the tree. In this case, not only the crown is formed, but also the trunk of the tree. It is desirable that it be about 60 cm tall. Cherry after
pruningin cold weather, it often falls ill with gum flow, so you should not rush to pruning. It is advisable to perform it only in warm and dry weather, in late spring or early summer. The branches of the first order and the conductor (tip) are cut to 1 / 3-1 / 2 of their length. The branches are shortened at approximately the same level, and the conductor is formed 20-30 cm higher. Pruning should always be done on the outer bud. During autumn and winter pruning, the tissues near the sections freeze, dry out, and the wounds do not heal well, so they try not to carry it out at such a time. In the future, up to the age of seven, the main pruning technique is shortening. The longer the increments, the stronger the pruning should be. Then it has a stronger effect and stimulates additional branching. In this case, we must strive to ensure thatso that the branches of the first order are evenly covered with branches of the second and third orders, as a result, the yield will increase. In addition, annual shortening allows you to restrain the growth of the crown in height and to some extent affects the increase in winter hardiness. If the shoot is very strong, about a meter long, it is shortened by half, at 50-60 cm - by 1/3, and at 30-40 cm - by 1/4. Weak gains do not shorten. Thinning is almost not carried out, only dry, weak, crisscrossing branches growing inside the crown are removed. After the beginning of fruiting, the thinning of the crown is carried out moderately, and only shoots longer than 50 cm are shortened. When the growth of branches stops, rejuvenation is carried out. It is also best done at the beginning of summer. In this case, the last 3-8 growths are removed by pruning above the lateral branch. Anti-aging induces enhanced growth. When pruning, you can not leave hemp and make a cut too deep. The left stump will dry out, but for many years it will not be able to grow. As a result, it will become infected with the spores of pathogenic fungi, begin to rot, turning into a hollow. Deep cuts take a long time to heal.
In the Middle zone and in the North-West,
cherries are often damaged by frost, there is the death of fruit buds, growth, burns of the bark of the trunk and branches, and even the death of the entire crown to the level of snow cover. You should not rush to prune frozen and even dead branches. It is carried out only after the leaves have completely bloomed. Slices after pruning are treated with sorrel and covered with garden var. If the entire crown dies, pruning on a thorn is justified only for trees not older than 5 years. In older plants, shoots that have emerged from dormant buds, and then branches, will have a fragile fusion with the trunk and begin to break off. Such trees will have to be uprooted. Frost cracks and sunburn should be avoided. To do this, in the fall, they tie the trunks and forks of the branches of the first order for the winter. And if frost cracks do arise, you need to clean them up to healthy wood, treat the wound with garden varnish,put bridges if necessary. Damaged plants are fed, especially with nitrogen or organic matter.
Sweet cherry is demanding for heat and light, but withstands partial shade. However, with insufficient lighting (shading) it grows, develops and bears fruit poorly, becomes short-lived. Its winter hardiness, as already mentioned, is insufficient, except for the temperature regime of the year, it depends on the degree of preparation of the tree for winter, its health and general condition, location and other factors. Cherry ends the growing season late, after the onset of autumn frosts, hence the reduced winter hardiness. In trees normally prepared for winter, the wood of the trunk and branches is relatively winter-hardy, withstands temperatures below -30 ° C. Fruit buds are less hardy and die at -24 ° C. The buds and flowers of sweet cherry, like most other fruit species, are beaten by spring frosts.
Diseases and pests
Cherry is not very strongly affected by diseases and
pests. The most dangerous diseases are
clasterosporia (perforated spot) and
moniliosis (gray stone rot). These diseases also strongly affect other stone fruits (plums, cherries, etc.). Measures to combat them are standard.
Pests in the middle lane and in the Northwest can be:
cherry elephant, cherry aphid, slimy sawfly, fruit mite, caterpillars of the golden-tailed, hawthorn, ringed and
unpaired silkworms, rose leafworm. Control measures are also standard.
Starlings, blackbirds, sparrows and other
can cause great damage, which often completely destroy the crop. They should be dealt with
only during the ripening period of the fruits, since before that they bring great benefits to the garden. Control measures - covering tree crowns with fishing nets, hanging stuffed birds of prey or at least their imitations (especially those equipped with large movable eyes from children's toys-tumblers).
The use of cherries in the landscape
Cherry trees are surprisingly ornate and grow quickly, especially at a young age. Therefore, they are very suitable for high-speed gardening, over the summer they are able to grow by 2-3 m. They are very decorative at any time of the year, in the spring - with white flowers, in the summer - they are good with the bright color of the fruits and the thick shadow created by the crown, and in the winter - with brownish-reddish shiny trunks and branches. Unfortunately, sweet cherry is not often used in landscape design yet. It is especially suitable for the accelerated creation of tapeworms and alleys, it fixes well eroded areas. With the appropriate formation, it can be cultivated as a tub culture.
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