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Video: Types And Rules For Pruning Roses
Read the previous part. ← Selection of varieties and planting of roses
How to properly prune roses
Gloria dey hybrid tea
One of the most important agricultural techniques for growing roses is pruning. …
Pruning pursues different goals: obtaining beautiful proportional bushes, improving roses and increasing their longevity, achieving abundant flowering. …
In accordance with these goals, there are also different types of pruning: formative, sanitary, rejuvenating, thinning and pruning for flowering.
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Types of pruning roses
Experienced growers use several types of pruning: formative, sanitary, rejuvenating, thinning, and “bloom pruning”.
Formative pruning - pruning roses after planting and in the first summer. When planting in spring, you immediately need to start forming a well-developed symmetrical bush (when planting in autumn, the first pruning is transferred to spring, so as not to cause the growth of new shoots in autumn). Usually already cut seedlings are sold, and you only need to remove diseased, dried up or broken shoots.
If a rose with sufficiently long shoots is transplanted, they must be shortened, leaving several buds on each in order to balance the underground and aboveground parts of the plant and enhance the growth of young shoots. In summer, young shoots should be pinched over 3-4 leaves, this is especially important for hybrid tea roses in the case of a stronger growth of one of the shoots.
The first buds that form should also be removed. All this is aimed at speedy rooting and enhanced growth in the first half of summer, the formation of lateral shoots, the growth of a strong symmetrical bush. In August, the formation of a rose should be stopped, and you can let it bloom, so as not to cause the growth of shoots that will not have time to ripen before winter.
English bush rose Charlotte
Sanitary pruning. For roses, this is primarily the removal of frozen and disease-damaged shoots, and after unfavorable winters, such pruning can be very strong on all types of roses. This type of pruning includes cutting of dried, broken branches that have not ripened by autumn shoots.
With grafted roses, a very important technique is cutting the rose hips. This operation can also be attributed to sanitary measures, since if it is not carried out, the rose may die. Sanitary pruning is carried out throughout the year: the main one - in the spring after removing the shelter, in the summer - as needed, in the fall - before the shelter for the winter.
Anti-aging pruning. In roses, as in all typical shrubs, the main shoots become obsolete with age, give a weak growth, and weaken flowering. Young zero shoots grow on almost all roses every year. To ensure long life and abundant flowering, all roses require systematic anti-aging pruning.
Old branches with dying growth are cut out, exfoliating bark to the base or until the young lateral branch leaves. In most cases, it is inappropriate to leave shoots older than four years on the bushes. Pruning is carried out in the spring, taking into account the preservation of the branches after sanitary pruning.
Thinning pruning. Due to the thickening of the bushes, the illumination of the shoots worsens, favorable conditions are created for the development of infection. Therefore, annual thinning is carried out in spring - the removal of weak branches that are not valuable for flowering, as well as branches growing inside the bush, small shoots of own-rooted park roses.
Bloom pruning - aims to ensure balanced growth and flowering of roses. Its nature and degree are primarily determined by the age of the shoots on which the flowers are formed. Many roses bloom on this year's shoots (hybrid tea, floribunda) and it is important to shorten the previous year's shoots so that they grow strong young branches that bloom this year.
The buds on the shoots have different degrees of development and the ability to bloom. The upper buds give earlier flowering, but the flowers are smaller, on short peduncles; with strong pruning, the lower buds awaken, giving large flowers on long peduncles, suitable for cutting. There are roses that bloom only on last year's and older shoots (for example, ramblers), and it is important for them to preserve last year's shoots for a considerable length.
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Park rose Grothendorst
Pruning for flowering is carried out by shortening last year's growth in the spring. Distinguish between low, medium and strong pruning.
Weak pruning - removal of the upper, often immature, part of the shoot to a well-formed bud. Such pruning is usually used on roses blooming on last year's and older shoots: park, climbing, shrub.
Medium pruning - shortening last year's shoots to their middle part, leaving 4-6 buds on them. Such pruning is carried out on roses blooming on the shoots of the current year: hybrid tea, floribunda, polyanthus, miniature. It promotes good regrowth and abundant flowering of the bush.
Strong - cutting off most of the shoot leaving 2-3 buds on it. In this case, long young shoots with single larger flowers, suitable for cutting, grow, but flowering is delayed and less abundant. This is how hybrid tea roses intended for cutting are cut, sometimes miniature roses to simplify shelter.
Pruning "for flowering" is also summer pruning of roses, i.e. removal of faded inflorescences to a well-developed bud. This pruning promotes the regrowth of young shoots and more abundant re-flowering (this does not apply to once-flowering park roses that bear fruit). In August, such pruning is stopped so as not to cause the growth of shoots that do not have time to ripen before winter.
The use of specific types of pruning at a certain time, the degree of pruning depends on the characteristics of the shoot formation and flowering of this group of roses. To facilitate the understanding of the pruning process and ease of its practical implementation, a fairly simple scheme can be proposed. In this scheme, roses are combined into 4 groups so that within each group, pruning could be done almost the same. Thus, each group has its own cutting system.
Pruning system 1. Roses bloom on the shoots of the current year, for which a sufficiently strong shoot shortening is applied. This is especially important due to the fact that they are all thermophilic and require careful shelter for the winter, and a fairly short pruning greatly simplifies this process. The group includes hybrid tea roses, floribunda, miniature, polyanthus, patio.
Pruning system 2. The peculiarity of the growth of such roses is that in the first year, long, usually flexible shoots grow from the ground or in the lower part of old branches, which do not bloom in the current year. The next year, side branches grow on them, giving abundant flowering. In the third year, these shoots are still capable of flowering, but they thicken strongly, flowering decreases.
A large number of zero shoots are formed annually, which ensures constant renewal of the bush and abundant flowering next year. Most varieties, especially the older ones, bloom once but for a long time. The group includes small-flowered climbing roses (ramblers) and some large-flowered (Flamentants).
1 - sanitary pruning
2 - shelter pruning
Pruning system 3. This pruning system brings together different groups of roses with strong volumetric growth, for which it is important to preserve the shoots for most of their length in winter. Most of them can bloom both on last year's and older shoots, and on shoots of the current year.
They have repeated and often almost continuous flowering (except for once flowering park flowers). Some of these roses, which have a growth pattern close to hybrid tea roses, can grow and bloom with more vigorous pruning, but at the same time they become less decorative, bloom less abundantly and lose their advantages over other groups of roses. Shoots bloom most actively at the age of 1-4 years, and it is these shoots that are left when pruning. This group includes park, large-flowered climbing roses and shrub roses - shrabs.
Pruning system 4. These roses are practically self-forming, do not require careful annual pruning. They bloom on shoots of different ages. This group includes ground cover and landscape roses.
Now let's move on to looking at these four rose pruning systems:
Rose pruning system steps 1
1 - sanitary pruning
2 - anti-aging pruning
3 - thinning pruning
4 - blooming pruning
Fall. Sanitary pruning is carried out, then all shoots are shortened to a height of 10 cm below the height of the shelter, which is 30-50 cm, and for miniature roses - 10-20 cm.
Spring. We start with sanitary pruning, then rejuvenate and thin out the bush. Preliminary pruning "for flowering" was carried out in the fall, the shoots are shortened, it remains to carry out the final pruning: shorten all the shoots of the previous year to a well-developed bud, however, with severe freezing, the shoots have to be significantly shortened, and sanitary pruning replaces all other species.
Summer. In the first half of summer, faded flowers and inflorescences with part of the shoot are cut off to a well-located (usually outward) developed bud. This improves the growth of new shoots and promotes re-flowering. In the second half of summer, such pruning is stopped to prevent the growth of new shoots, which will not have time to ripen before winter. If necessary, sanitary pruning is also carried out in the summer, in particular, cutting of rosehip shoots.
Trimming System Actions 2
1 - sanitary pruning
2 - removal of inflorescences
For once-flowering ramblers, it is usually recommended to cut off the faded shoots of the second year immediately after flowering to the base to improve the growth of annual shoots, but practically in the summer it is very difficult to prune, since the branches are tied to supports, and it is more convenient to transfer this operation to autumn, when the roses are removed from the supports …
However, young shoots are not always formed in sufficient quantities, and not all of them can overwinter well, therefore it is advisable to leave some, and sometimes all, two-year-old shoots until spring. In the spring, after evaluating the number of shoots capable of flowering, remove the extra ones. In practice, pruning can be done in the following way, both for once and repeatedly flowering ramblers:
Fall. After sanitary pruning, cut out all the faded shoots of the third year, if any, to the base and shorten the shoots slightly to facilitate shelter.
Spring. After sanitary pruning, depending on the number of surviving shoots, you can cut out a part of the two-year-old shoots that bloomed last summer, since too many shoots flowering this year will not allow enough strong young shoots to grow. Shorten the lateral branches of biennial shoots to 2-3 buds. Last year's (not flowering) shoots should be cut to a well-developed bud. All shoots can be shortened to the same length, depending on the characteristics of the support.
Summer. Cut off faded inflorescences.
Trimming System Actions 3
1 - sanitary pruning
2 - rejuvenating
3 - thinning
4 - weak pruning "for flowering"
5 - pruning to the desired height
Fall. They carry out sanitary pruning, removal of inflorescences. Park roses that do not hide can not be cut at all in the fall. If climbing or shrub roses are covered with an air dry method, to facilitate the shelter, you can carry out a partially rejuvenating one - cut out the oldest branches and shorten all the shoots somewhat.
Spring. All types of pruning are carried out, especially you need to pay attention to anti-aging and thinning, since the roses of this pruning group are prone to thickening. Bloom pruning is weak. All shoots are shortened to well-developed buds. In climbing roses, the lateral branches are shortened by 2-3 buds.
Shrub roses can be shortened by one third of the height, leaving the bush about a meter high to make it more compact. Often, after frosty winters and with insufficient cover, park and shrub roses have to be cut to the level of snow. They usually recover well during the year, and many bloom already this year.
Summer. For re-blooming roses, timely pruning of faded inflorescences is important. In roses with decorative fruits, the inflorescences are not cut off.
Trimming System Operations 4
Rose Patio Clementine Black
In the first years after planting on roses of this group, only sanitary pruning is carried out, then once every few years, rejuvenating pruning. Very old thickened bushes can be cut to a height of about 20-40 cm, after which they will grow back and rejuvenate quite quickly. Often, in such roses, branches that go beyond the specified boundaries are cut to give the bush a certain shape.
The terms of spring and autumn pruning for all groups are approximately the same.
The timing of autumn pruning is very important, as premature pruning helps to awaken dormant buds, especially during a warm long autumn. For the North-West region, it has been experimentally established that the best time is the end of October - early November, just before the shelter.
When pruned during these periods, secondary growth in autumn was not observed under any weather conditions. The optimal time for spring pruning is early May (in early spring - late April), immediately after the soil thaws and the roses open. With severe freezing, pruning is postponed to a later date, when the buds begin to bloom and it is easier to determine the degree of damage. In this case, it is advisable to trim in several stages. Often, after the growth of roses, damaged, drying branches are revealed, which do not give good growth. Such branches need to be cut.
Often, pruning means only shortening the shoots, but the most important techniques are complete cutting of the shoot and cutting of the side branch. When pruning, certain rules must be followed. When removing a shoot completely, it is important to know whether it is necessary to preserve the buds located at its base.
If an old or diseased shoot is cut out, a replacement shoot should grow to replace it, and it is important to preserve the buds at the base of the shoot. Pruning is carried out at soil level or slightly above. If a rosehip shoot is cut out, new offspring should not be allowed to grow from dormant buds, and the shoot is cut below, having previously excavated its base.
When removing the lateral branch, the cut should be done at the inflow so that the cut area is minimal, but without leaving a hemp, which will make it more difficult for the wound to heal. When shortening the shoot, it is always cut off "for a well-located bud", i.e. a few millimeters above the bud, from which the continuation shoot should grow, without damaging it, but also without leaving hemp. An external bud is usually chosen so as not to thicken the center of the bush.
If fungal diseases are found on the rose plantation, the sections must be painted over with water-based paint with the addition of copper oxychloride.
The garden groups of roses mentioned in this article can be found on our website rosa-spb.ru.
Read the next part. Shelter roses for the winter →