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Zemklunika
Zemklunika

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Video: ЗЕМКЛУНИКА - это что еще за чудо?? 🍓 2023, January
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How to grow a dugout in the beds, dwarf varieties

Zemklunika
Zemklunika

Zemklunika is a new plant that appeared as a result of crossing two crops - garden strawberry and strawberry. Along with the already existing hybrid breeds - Cerapadus, Ribelaria and a number of others, the earthworm has gained popularity among lovers of outlandish plants, since there are also varieties of earthworms, and it is not so difficult to acquire them.

Like all such crops, the landowner has an author - this is the famous breeder Tatyana Sergeevna Kantor. It was she who, in the 70s of the last century, managed to get a unique hybrid between nutmeg strawberries and large-fruited garden strawberries.

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Feature of culture

What happened as a result of crossing, and what is a dugout? It is a very tall shrub, powerful and strongly leafy. It has erect peduncles that rise above the leaves and do not droop, even when a crop is formed on them. Due to the fact that the earthworm has such a structure, it is also attractive as an ornamental plant. During the flowering period, the culture literally turns into a small bunch, covered with bright flowers. Gardeners are also pleased with the fact that almost all the numerous flowers form berries.

Fully ripe fruits become red with a slightly noticeable purple tint. Berries are very similar to strawberries, but their density is higher, so they can be used for all types of processing, including where it is required to preserve the intact structure of the fruit. It is also suitable for long distance transport. In addition to the color and shape of the berry we are accustomed to, the berry has a musky aroma that is characteristic of strawberries.

Ripe berries are an excellent dessert that can be eaten by plucking from plants, or you can postpone and stretch the pleasure by freezing the berries in the refrigerator, or mixing them with sugar and turning them into a delicious and high-vitamin puree. Even after defrosting, the taste and aroma of berries, and most importantly, most of the vitamins are preserved in them. The very first, most desirable berries of the earthworm ripen usually later than the berries of the garden strawberries and later, a little less often than the strawberries we meet - in late June or early July. They contain a huge amount of useful substances, they can be used as a prophylactic agent that helps with various diseases - pressure surges, rheumatism, arthritis and even gout. Of course, you should not expect a complete cure of the disease by simply consuming the berries of the earthworm, but they may well alleviate the symptoms of diseases.

An interesting feature of the dugout is that even if you did not have time to collect the fruits in time, they will wait for you and will not start to rot. The most unpleasant thing that can happen to them is their drying right on the plants. In this regard, the dugout is somewhat reminiscent of an irga, its fruits also hang on plants until they turn into raisins.

Absolutely all of the varieties of earthworms available today have high winter hardiness, which makes it possible to tolerate even the most severe winters under snow cover without any problems, as well as resistance to powdery mildew even in years of epiphytoties and full resistance to gray rot.

Seat selection and landing

As for the choice of location, the dwarf prefers open areas, a light shade there is permissible only if the harvest is not the main thing for you. In the shade, the plants will feel good, but few fruits will be tied, and those that have tied will eventually be small and have less sugar. Even the ripening period of berries in the shade will be extended, the first of them will ripen about two weeks later than those that grow in the open.

However, shaded areas have their advantages, the moisture evaporates there more slowly, and if you decide to start a dugout in the country, where you are not so often, then give preference to areas where there is a little shading. So the shade can affect the culture favorably, the harvests in drought there will be even greater than those of plants growing in the open sun. In addition, shaded areas can prolong the period of consumption of fresh berries by about two to three weeks, and the berries there will be, albeit smaller, but more aligned.

As for planting, if you can plant a plant with a lump of earth, then you can do this throughout the warm season, even during the flowering of the bushes. For planting the same seedlings with an open root system, there are very specific dates. This is the period from late August to mid-late September.

It is better to plant seedlings in wet weather, and after planting, the plants must be well watered, which will contribute to their faster survival in a new place. After watering, the soil must be mulched; peat, humus, or ordinary dry and better nutritious soil are suitable for this.

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Care of the earthworm

To obtain stable, high yields of tasty berries, the plants must be periodically fed. For this, both organic and mineral fertilizers are suitable. Top dressing should be done at times when plants are especially needed. The first is carried out in the period preceding flowering; the second is during the blooming of the flowers, and the third is to reinforce the plants after fruiting. With such top dressing, you will create an optimal agricultural background, which will help your plants leave in full force in the winter, and this is a guarantee of a future high harvest next year.

In the fall, you should prepare for the fact that you may need to shelter plants. It will be needed only if frosts hit the bare ground. If the first snow fell and covered the bushes of the dugout, then you should not worry about shelter. The best option for shelter is fir spruce branches, it not only helps to keep warm, it also contributes to snow accumulation. With good care and timely feeding, the yields of the dugout will be consistently high. The maximum yield that a full-fledged bush of the earthworm can give is more than 300 grams.

However, it is still impossible to call a rural dweller a problem-free culture. Perhaps the most important problem is the active formation of the mustache. One plant in a short time can form more than seven dozen whiskers. And in order not to run the site, it is necessary to periodically delete them. You can start removing the whiskers immediately after the end of fruiting, their largest number is usually formed in mid-July.

Rarely, but still it happens that the berries are affected by gray rot. This manifests itself most often in areas that are too humid, where stagnation of melt or rain water is allowed. However, even in this case, the berries are affected by no more than 5-7%, which is ten times lower than, for example, strawberries. In many ways, this resistance is due to the peduncles, which do not allow the berries to be at the ground, they are ventilated and do not allow the spread of the disease. Also, the disadvantages of the earthworm include a low mass of fruits, rarely exceeding 20 g.

Dwarf varieties

Breeders actively used the dugout in their work, as a result of which cultivars were obtained, which won the sympathy of gardeners. I will give examples, in my opinion, of the most successful of them, those that are resistant to powdery mildew, wilt, gray rot, as well as to nematodes and strawberry mites:

Variety

Nadezhda Zagorya

is a very tall bush with thick and strong peduncles and bisexual flowers that do not require additional pollination. The variety can be safely recommended for amateur gardening, since it has a normal weight of berries on average equal to 10-15 g (individual berries can reach 25 g), and the yield often exceeds the standard 300 g per bush.

Variety M ukatnaya biryulevskaya - this variety forms medium-sized bushes with slightly inclined peduncles bearing bisexual flowers. The berries are dense, suitable for transportation and processing. The average berry weight is more than 8 g, and the maximum can reach 20 g. The yield from a bush is usually at the level of 250-300 g, it is very stable over the years.

A medium-sized bush is also formed by the Strawberry variety, however, its peduncles are thick and straight, they raise the berries much higher than the leaves, so they are not affected by gray rot. This variety has one drawback - the flowers form unisexual, and they need a pollinator variety. Berries of the Strawberry variety ripen a little earlier than usual, have an average weight of 5-7 g, while the maximum one barely exceeds 10 g. The yield from a bush under ideal conditions can reach 250 g, and the average is usually 100-120 g.

The Penelope variety is very interesting for amateur gardeners, having an average height, however, it can give annual and abundant yields of 250 and even 280 g per bush. The average weight of berries is about 10 g, and the maximum weight often exceeds 20 g. Among the positive qualities of the variety, it should be noted high resistance to powdery mildew and the absence of the need for a pollinator.

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Cultivation of the Penelope variety

A fairly powerful bush with a yield of more than two hundred grams per plant and an average fruit weight of 7-9 g forms the Report cultivar. Its bisexual flowers are located on tall peduncles that do not bend under the harvest.

The variety with the romantic name Diana is a tall plant with erect peduncles and berries weighing up to 20 g. The yield per bush under ideal conditions reaches 300 g, and the average is 200-250 g.

If you saw on the site large plants with strong peduncles, bisexual flowers and berries of an interesting oval-conical shape weighing more than 25 g, then there is a high probability that this is the Raisa variety - the largest-fruited cultivar known to date. Its average yield per bush can reach 350 g, and the maximum is close to 400.

Among the varieties with complex resistance to pests and diseases, the Candied Muscat variety stands out. Having landed it on the site, you will forget that any processing is needed, of course, if you are satisfied with fruits weighing 6-8 g and a yield of about 250 g per bush.

I would like to give one important advice to readers who are just going to develop the newly acquired site. If you have firmly decided to allocate some place on it for the dugout, then choose free places that will not be in demand in the near future. Let it be ridges, flower beds, free zones between bushes or trees. Having occupied a free territory, limited by larger plants, you can not be afraid of the excessive spread of the culture, and the first harvest of berries in an open space can be obtained already in the second year after planting.

Nikolay Khromov

researcher, candidate of sciences GNU VNIIS im. I.V. Michurina Russian Agricultural Academy, Scientific Secretary of ANIRR

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