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Video: How To Grow Currants And Gooseberries
Growing fruit bushes - currants and gooseberries
They began to grow currants and gooseberries several centuries ago, not only as berries, but also as medicinal crops. Nowadays, these crops are cultivated not only as backyard plants, but also as industrial ones. The currant occupies huge areas both in Russia and abroad (North America, England, etc.). This has been achieved, first of all, by the creation of high-yielding varieties that are adaptive to external stresses, resistant to diseases and pests. A special role in this was played by the development of the processing industry, in which the fruits of currants and gooseberries occupy a certain niche.
Saplings of currant and gooseberry are in short supply and are sold at very low prices. For example, here, in Michurinsk, the price of two-year-old seedlings of these crops ranges from 60 rubles. It should be borne in mind that varietal purity, freedom from diseases and pests can only be guaranteed by scientific institutions and specialized nurseries. In this regard, when purchasing seedlings in garden markets, you should first carefully study the description of the varieties you need. This can be helped by the Internet and pomological reference books on crops, where the color, size, vigor of growth, curvature, spine coverage of the shoots, which distinguish currant and gooseberry seedlings, are indicated, and only after that buy them. Standard seedlings of these crops have a height of 50-70 cm, 2-3 branches, a well-developed root system.
It is possible to plant currants and gooseberries both in autumn and in spring, but early spring planting reduces survival by 10-15%. When planting in autumn, it should be borne in mind that seedlings should be planted no later than 1-2 weeks before the onset of stable frosts.
Slightly acidic soils with a high humus content are suitable for planting currants and gooseberries. Lowlands and depressions should not be used, as the death of plants occurs with strong waterlogging. The depth of groundwater in the areas should not exceed one meter.
Chernozems are most suitable for currants and gooseberries, however, before planting seedlings, you should rid the area of weeds using herbicides. It is important to take into account the duration of the herbicides, which also affects the viability of the seedlings.
In garden plots, currants and gooseberries are planted at a distance of 1.5-2 m from each other. To do this, prepare a planting pit 25-40 cm deep, depending on the development of the root system of the seedling. It is carefully placed there, gradually falling asleep with earth and carefully compacting it. Unlike gooseberries, currants are planted obliquely, at an angle of 45 °, which ensures better development of the root system and the formation of new shoots. This planting technique contributes to the production of powerful, well-branched bushes, which further ensures high yields.
Standard forms of currants and gooseberries
For many gardeners, currants and gooseberries serve not only as a source of high-vitamin berries, but also as a decoration of the site. In this regard, they adopt the experience of foreign gardeners and plant standard forms of crops. You can get a stem in two ways. In the first case, varieties with an erect crown are selected, a powerful shoot is chosen and it is isolated with a transparent plastic tube at a height of 60-70 cm from the soil level. Then 4-7 branched shoots are left. The disadvantage of this method is the very strong formation of coarse shoots, which often have to be removed.
The second way to create standard forms, most often used in gardening practice, is to inoculate varietal material onto golden currant stocks, which is characterized by a weaker growth activity. Standard forms are planted according to a more thickened scheme with a distance between plants of 0.5 m. Autumn planting of golden currant and later spring grafting of varietal shoot is possible. Berries on standard forms are of high quality and taste. They are very easy to assemble.
Agrotechnical measures for the care of currants and gooseberries include loosening and watering of near-stem circles. To preserve moisture, it is possible to mulch the trunks with sawdust. Currants, like many berry bushes, bear fruit on the growths of the previous year. To increase the shoot-forming ability, early spring application of nitrogen fertilizers is carried out: urea or ammonium nitrate, 10-20 g per bush. After fertilization, they are immediately sealed. Up to 80 g of superphosphate and 5 kg of organic fertilizers are applied under fruiting plants in autumn.
The lack of moisture during the formation and ripening of fruits leads to crushing and premature shedding of the fruits. In this regard, during dry periods, it is imperative to carry out 2-4 single watering per week.
Pruning refers to one of the agrotechnical measures that help increase yields and prevent the development of diseases and pests. The first stage of currant pruning begins immediately after planting, when the upper part of the shoots is removed. In this case, 3-4 buds are left above the soil level. This pruning stimulates shoot growth and quicker yields. Formative pruning begins in the fifth year of plant life. On fruiting plants, 8-12 skeletal branches should be left, and if this rate is exceeded, older branches are cut out. Plants over eight years of age have old branches, the growth of which is very weak. The presence of these branches leads to a sharp decrease in productivity, and therefore, they should be removed. Also, dry and damaged branches should be removed on uneven-aged plants. The optimal time for pruning berries is early spring, before bud break. If the spring pruning fails, you can do it in the fall.
Pests and diseases of berry bushes
The presence of pests and diseases is one of the factors affecting the decrease in plant productivity and the deterioration of their general condition. The main pests of currants are kidney mites and glass jars.… The kidney mite overwinters and multiplies in the buds of the currant. Infected kidneys are larger. In the spring, when the buds open, the infected dry out, after which the tick moves to neighboring buds. With a low spread of the tick, damaged kidneys are cut off and burned. If it is stronger, it is sprayed with 1% colloidal sulfur after flowering. Damage to plants by a glass bowl leads to drying of the shoots. When cutting off damaged shoots, a black hole is observed in the center. The pest overwinters in the shoots, and therefore the control measures include pruning and burning of damaged branches.
Among the pests of gooseberries, which often damage most of the crop, is the moth. The pest hibernates in the soil, then during the period of mass flowering, the female lays eggs in flowers and on the ovary. The caterpillars then damage the fruit. A folk remedy for combating this pest is to close the trunk circles after the snow melts with a film, which prevents the butterfly from flying. Among the harmful diseases of currants and gooseberries are powdery mildew, anthracnose and septoria. A distinctive feature of powdery mildew is the presence of white bloom on the leaves and tops of the shoots. The measures to prevent the onset of the disease include two-time treatment (before flowering and after harvesting) with foundation or topaz.
Anthracnose manifests itself in leaf fall in the second half of summer. The causative agent of the disease hibernates in fallen damaged leaves, and therefore, after they fall, the leaves are immediately burned. It is also possible to treat with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid before flowering and after harvesting. The appearance of gray spots on the leaves is explained by the presence of septoria. Disease control measures are similar to anthracnose. Currently, breeders have created new highly productive varieties of currants and gooseberries that are immune to diseases and pests. This should be taken into account when purchasing planting material. Thus, observing agrotechnical measures for planting, care, and combating diseases and pests, you can get high and stable yields of currants and gooseberries and use the fruits for food in fresh and processed form all year round.