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Video: Features Of Growing, Planting And Varieties Of Strawberries
2023 Author: Sebastian Paterson | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 20:34
Strawberries, strawberries, look out from under the leaf!
Strawberry Dutch variety Vima Rina
Strawberries are one of the most widespread and popular berry crops. The ability to grow in various environmental conditions, high profitability of cultivation, ease of reproduction, early maturity and many other positive qualities of culture allowed it to spread throughout Russia, where it began to be cultivated already in the 18th century.
Strawberries are a valuable source of vitamins, minerals and organic compounds. Berries contain up to 10% sugars, about 1.3% organic acids, potassium, calcium, iron, iodine, phosphorus and copper salts, up to 750 mg% P-active substances, up to 120 mg% vitamin C and up to 5% folic acid (vitamin B9). The consumption of fresh fruits in food eliminates the signs of vitamin deficiency, improves blood circulation, reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases, salt deposits, kidney and liver diseases.
Decoctions and infusions of fruits, leaves and flowers of strawberries can be used for tonsillitis, inflammation of the gums and the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract. In cosmetology, strawberries are often used in the form of cosmetic masks.
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Two-line landing pattern
Despite the highest demand for strawberries on the market, Russia does not even take the 20th place among other producing countries (USA, Germany, Italy, Turkey, Japan, Spain, Poland, etc.) in the production of fruits of this crop per capita, producing less than 1.5 kg of fruit per person per year. But the average annual consumption of strawberries by humans today is 3.8 kg.
The world leader in strawberry production is Spain, where more than 7 kg of berries are produced per person. Strawberries are relatively frost-hardy, in snowless winters they can withstand temperature drops down to -15 … 20 ° С. In frosty winters, a stable snow cover more than 20 cm thick is able to protect plants from temperatures down to -35 ° C.
The yield of this crop is determined by the varietal specifics and agrotechnical growing conditions. The genetic characteristics of the strawberry variety affect the number of horns on the plant, peduncles, flowers and the mass of berries. Agrotechnical conditions for growing strawberries affect the strength of the development of peduncles, the degree and quality of berry setting. Therefore, you should not think that you can get a high-quality harvest of garden strawberries only by selecting modern highly productive varieties.
Four-line landing pattern
The key to a high yield of strawberries is early planting of high-quality seedlings in a well-lit area, timely protection of plantations from diseases and pests, irrigation and feeding. The main method of propagation of strawberries is vegetative, with the help of mustaches - modified shoots.
The degree of whisker formation is a varietal trait that can be stimulated by removing the inflorescences. Conversely, if the mustache is removed, the yield increases. The remontant strawberry varieties are characterized by a weak ability to form whiskers.
The optimum soil moisture for strawberries is 70-80%. Irrigation is required in all areas of its cultivation. Watering is required before flowering, during the growth of the ovaries, before the ripening of berries, after harvest and in the fall to increase the winter hardiness of plants.
To select an assortment of cultivated varieties, it is necessary to take into account their zoning, winter hardiness, yield, large-fruitiness, taste of berries, resistance to pests and diseases, transportability.
For cultivation of strawberries, medium loamy soils with a neutral reaction of the environment are optimal. Arid lands and areas with spring stagnation of water are unsuitable for planting. In areas located in lowlands, strawberries will die from frost. Strawberries should not be grown in one place for more than 3-4 years.
The most common planting method is one-line, according to the 60x15 cm scheme. The resulting whiskers are shifted to a row, forming stripes up to 30-40 cm wide.
Sometimes two, three and four-line planting patterns are used (60 cm between rows, 30 cm between lines and 15 cm between plants in a line). Recently, in industrial plantings of strawberries, mulching with an opaque film or non-woven material has been widely used. In this case, the seedlings are planted in two lines 85 + 35x15 cm.
With a short service life of fruiting plantings of strawberries, seedlings can be planted somewhat denser.
The use of an opaque plastic film helps to obtain early and high yields, prevents weeds from infesting the site, retains moisture and heat in the soil.
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Mulching row spacings with straw
The best dates for planting strawberries are summer (until August 20) and spring (from late April to May 10). During these periods, there is the most favorable combination of weather conditions (sufficient air and soil moisture) conducive to good survival and further development of seedlings.
For amateur gardeners, summer planting of strawberries is better. Indeed, for spring planting, it is difficult for them to save planting material. In addition, seedlings not dug out in autumn from mother plants weaken them. When planting strawberries in spring, this area does not give the gardener any production for the whole summer. And with summer planting, the plants take root better, by the fall the bushes develop a good root system. In the spring, at the beginning of the new season, they start growing together and already give the first harvest. However, it must be remembered that you cannot be late with planting strawberries, otherwise the bushes will not create a good root system and will freeze out in winter. They can also freeze out in years with snowless winters.
To protect fruit-bearing plantations from low temperatures in winter, mulching with peat or sawdust is carried out in the rows - 25 t / ha or 250 kg per hundred square meters. In early spring, to avoid etiolation (discoloration) of the leaves, the mulch is removed. In an industrial setting, the best time for planting strawberries is late April - early May. Autumn planting in years with snowless winters often freezes out.
The so-called frigo seedlings are planted in spruce - after winter storage in specialized storage facilities. Of course, summer residents have nowhere to store it, and therefore it is best to plant seedlings immediately after digging, especially since frigo is more expensive. However, frigo seedlings have their advantages. The crop can be obtained in the year of planting, but this does not work everywhere, a high level of agricultural technology, drip irrigation with fertilizing, etc. are required. The winter hardiness of strawberries can be increased by using a covering non-woven material in the fall.
Before planting strawberries, it is recommended to add up to 150 t / ha (1500 kg per hundred square meters) of manure to the soil. In the second year of fruiting, fertilizing is carried out with ammonium nitrate - 150 kg / ha (1.5 kg per hundred square meters), superphosphate - 250 kg / ha (2.5 kg per hundred square meters), potassium chloride - 100 kg / ha (1 kg per hundred square meters) …
Strawberry seedlings should be planted so that the apical bud is at the level of the soil surface. It should not be allowed to fall asleep with earth and bare the roots if the seedlings are too shallow. Fruiting areas of strawberries must be constantly watered, periodically loosened the soil, weed, treat pests and diseases, apply fertilizers, etc. In early spring, it is necessary to remove last year's dry leaves of strawberries, which are the source of infection.
Vima Zanta variety
Immediately after harvesting, in areas of the second or third year of fruiting, strawberry leaves are mowed at a height of 5 cm from the soil surface; lower mowing can lead to damage to the horns. This technique helps to increase the number of horns laid, increases the yield of strawberries for the next year and prevents the development and spread of pests and diseases.
To select an assortment, you need to know how much the selected variety is adapted to the unfavorable conditions of the growing place, what is its potential yield, quality and marketability of fruits, resistance to diseases, etc.
Like other fruit crops, strawberry varieties are distinguished by the timing of the ripening of the crop in early, middle and late. In addition, there is a varietal gradation in relation to the length of daylight hours. According to it, varieties of short, long and neutral days are divided.
In the Central region of Russia, short-day varieties prevail, for them a ten-hour daylight hours and temperatures from 10 to 20 ° C are enough.
To lay flower buds of remontant strawberry varieties, the length of daylight hours should be more than 15 hours. Most varieties are self-fertile - they have bisexual flowers. The periods of flowering strawberries, ripening berries from the moment of pollination and fruiting can last up to 30 days.
Varieties of neutral daylight hours, as a rule, are small-fruited diploids, since they originated from the forest strawberry Fragaria vesca L. var. semperflorens Duch. The formation of the generative sphere of such varieties does not depend on the length of the day. Large-fruited varieties are octoploids, their origin is associated with the result of hybridization of Virginia and Chilean strawberries.
In the central part of Russia, the following varieties are widespread: early - Kokinskaya early, Kama, Zefir, Granatovaya; middle - Zenith, Festivalnaya, Pendant, Maryshka, Yield TsGL, Nadezhda; late - Zenga-Zengana, Elsanta, Red Gauntlet, Zenith, Talisman, Festival chamomile, etc.
From remontant varieties are grown: Oktyabrsky, Fakel Mira, Inexhaustible, Sakhalin and others.
In the North-West of Russia, strawberry varieties have proven themselves well: Festivalnaya, Zarya, Generous, Tsarskoselskaya, Onega, Severnaya yielding, Nadezhda, Cinderella, Beauty Zagorya, Kokinskaya early, Vityaz, Scarlet Dawn, Redgontlet, Favorite, Carmen, Sudarushka, Junia Smides, Wonderful, Lakomka, Zenga Zengana, Polka and others.
Recently, varieties of Dutch selection have become increasingly popular: Vima Zanta, Vima Ksima, Vikoda, Vima Tarda, Vima Rina, Kimberly. These varieties are characterized by increased winter hardiness, productivity, large-fruited, high palatability, density of berries, resistance to major diseases and pests.
When choosing planting material, you should pay special attention to the diameter of the rosettes ( no more than 1.5 cm ) and the length of the roots ( not less than 5 cm ). The best seedlings are annuals with 3-5 leaves per socket. It is advisable to choose plants without peduncles, if any, they must be removed in order to facilitate the plant's survival. The sooner you plant strawberries, the better they will take root and the faster the mustache will appear
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