Table of contents:
Video: Watering And Feeding Fruit Trees And Berry Bushes
Every gardener, especially a beginner, often encounters problems with watering: how to water, at what time, in what way, what are the pros and cons of this or that type of watering, is it suitable for a given type of soil and growing conditions, for existing plants or garden structure …
To understand all the intricacies of irrigation, you need to know exactly the composition of the soil of your site, study the moisture requirements of fruit crops in different periods of the year, assess the water hardness and find out the level of the groundwater. Only after that you can start selecting the most optimal watering method. And now let's dwell on its main methods:
Plant nurseries Stores of goods for summer cottages Landscape design studios
Hole irrigation, that is, irrigation performed in holes. The essence of this method consists in making holes under trees or shrubs at a distance of about 40-50 cm from the trunks. After these holes are filled with water from a regular irrigation hose. The advantage of this method of irrigation is that the water gets into the places where it is most needed. As a result, moisture is consumed more economically, and in the spring these holes allow you to better retain melt water. It must be remembered that the size of the holes depends on the size of the plant itself, that is, the older it is, the more moisture it needs. And in this case, larger holes should be dug out.
However, this method, along with obvious advantages, has its own disadvantages. The main one is additional and considerable labor costs, especially if your site consists of many fruit trees. In addition, soil compaction in the holes is inevitable. True, this unpleasant phenomenon can be avoided if mulching material is placed on the bottom of the hole.
The next fairly well-known irrigation method that I want to talk about is furrow irrigation. It should be noted right away that this method is most effective in areas with a slope. Before the furrows are cut, you need to decide on their location, direction and depth - all these indicators depend solely on the structure of your site, soil type, irrigation rate and, of course, the steepness of the slope.
Heavy soils are an example. On them, the distance between the grooves should be at least a meter, and on the lungs - no more than half a meter. In suburban areas, the grooves, in order to avoid damage to the roots of trees, are better placed closer to the trunk, and their depth can be calculated based on the slope: the smaller it is, the smaller the grooves. Usually, their depth varies from 12 to 25 cm. It is best to supply water to such grooves through pipes that are in the ground or on its surface.
This method, along with the undoubted advantages such as the retention of melt water, the reduction of erosion processes, alas, has disadvantages. Among them are the insignificant efficiency of land use and a rather significant consumption of water even with a low pressure.
Another effective and demanded method of irrigation is sprinkling. The greatest effect from the application of this method is achieved in large areas - at least 10-15 acres. This method can be used on any terrain. Its clear advantage is the convenience of regulating water flow. In addition, with this method of irrigation, there is an even distribution of moisture to the depth necessary for the plants, which you yourself can regulate by changing the intensity of irrigation. In addition, the air humidity in the area rises, a layer of dust is washed off from the leaves, which in turn improves their respiration and has a purely positive effect on the harvest.
Kittens for sale Puppies for sale Horses for sale
Most often, sprinkling is carried out using special sprinklers - nozzles with rather small holes that are put on the end of the irrigation hose. In other cases, they are mounted on stationary or mobile irrigation systems. Water passing through such holes turns into a drizzling stream, the strength and intensity of which can be adjusted.
However, you need to be careful with the amount of moisture and regulate the irrigation rate, otherwise excess moisture can lead to surface water runoff or even soil erosion.
And, finally, the last method of drip irrigation, which is most rarely used in home plots, and more often in industrial plantings. The essence of this method is that the water that passes through the tubes located at the base of the plants flows out through small holes in the form of drops and in this way feeds the soil with moisture. The disadvantages of this method should be noted - it is very expensive due to the fact that it is necessary to lay pipes over rather long distances. But its obvious advantages are the reduction of water consumption, and multiple, and its flow to the places where plants need it.
And now let's move on from irrigation to top dressing, without which we also cannot get a reliable harvest.
But first, we should recall what has already been thoroughly forgotten, but was used by our grandfathers and grandmothers: not only is it better to water in the evening, but it is better to apply fertilizers with the onset of this time of day.
Fertilizing is necessary even if your plants look healthy. Remember that absolutely all fruit and berry plants need feeding. Of course, you shouldn't be too zealous here. Before fertilizing everything around, you must first find out the composition of the soil of your site. Summer residents, whose plots are located in the black earth zone, should not worry at all, but fertilization cannot be completely ignored.
True, there you can limit yourself to the minimum doses of mineral fertilizers. But for those who have areas with clay soil, it is strongly recommended to apply humus and mineral fertilizers in somewhat large volumes. But do not forget that top dressing should not be carried out too often, because the clay soil "firmly" holds the trace elements and prevents them from being washed out.
Perhaps the hardest thing is for those gardeners whose plots are made up of sandy soils, as they are the most "capricious". On such soils, rains are bad, and drought too, because the former wash out most of the nutrients from the soil, and arid conditions inhibit their absorption, and, as you know, plants feed on substances dissolved in the soil.
It is especially difficult for young plants to grow on such soils, because their root system is still very poorly developed, therefore, feeding on such soils should be carried out a little more often.
But not only young plants need care and attention, mature plants also need feeding. And if your plans include obtaining annual high yields, then you need to timely replenish the reserves of nutrients in the soil. You should not ignore the summer dressing, which will improve the quality of the fruits, and their taste, as well as the safety of the crop, will increase the resistance of plants to pests and diseases.
The most important thing is not to overdo it with fertilizers and prevent plant starvation, the first sign of which is leaf discoloration. The situation can be quickly and effectively corrected by nitrogen fertilizers, as well as potash fertilizers, which are applied in the form of nitroammophoska, urea or ammonium nitrate.
When applying fertilizers, one should also remember the most favorable terms. For example, nitrogen should be applied before mid-July, but if applied later, it can stimulate shoot growth. And then the plants will not endure the winter well, but in general it is better to use complex mineral fertilizers, which contain nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in their composition.
It is best to apply fertilizer in small grooves that are made around the tree along the perimeter of the crown. Do not forget about the dosage, usually it is indicated on the package.
Shrubs should not be overlooked, they are no less than trees need food. A good result is achieved if you use compost or rotted manure in a concentration of 2-3 kg under a bush. Urea (20-30 g), superphosphate (10-12 g), potassium chloride (12-15 g) also work well. Spraying leaves with complex fertilizers containing zinc, boron and manganese has a good effect on plants. They increase the resistance of plants to diseases, improve flowering, and all this together leads to an increase in yield. It is best to spray during the flowering period, or the formation of ovaries, and always in dry and calm weather.