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Video: How To Disinfect Grape Planting Material
Read the previous part. ← Forming and pruning a grape bush
How to disinfect a grape seedling? Alas, with the help of the same pesticides, if you still received planting material of dubious quality. And if you do not want to bring pathogens and pests along with the planting material, then you will have to use pesticides so as not to use them already on fruiting plants.
For this purpose, fumigation is carried out (from the Latin fumigatio - fumigation), as a rule, with the help of fungicides and insecticides. But this is not necessarily traditional fumigation. For cuttings, you can use a clay mash with a creamy consistency, to which a mixture of pesticides is added, for example, a mixture of foundation and rogor (Bi-58).
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In order not to bring the phylloxer (according to the method of Prof. P.P. Radchevsky), the seedlings are first immersed for a day or two in water at room temperature, and then they are kept in polyethylene bags for 3-4 days to activate the pest. After that, the seedlings are immersed in a solution of some organophosphate pesticide and again kept for a day, again in a plastic bag. You can use Bi-58 new (30 g per 10 l of water), actellik (30 ml per 10 l of water). It is useful to treat the cuttings with a 5% solution of ferrous sulfate before planting, and even a 10% solution of this compound is used to prevent the development of anthracnose.
A good way to disinfect grape seedlings is fumigation with sulfur dioxide, which is formed as a result of the combustion of colloidal sulfur. The cuttings are placed indoors (or in a greenhouse, but at some elevation from the soil). For 1 cubic meter of space, take 50-100 g of sulfur, set it on fire, having previously decomposed it on metal trays, and then fumigated for 30 to 50 minutes, after which the room is ventilated. In the process of burning sulfur, a poisonous gas is formed - sulfur dioxide, which is a wonderful fungicide, destroying harmful insects at the same time. It must be remembered that sulfur dioxide is poisonous to both humans and animals, therefore, care must be taken to ensure that the gas does not get into the eyes or into the respiratory system.
According to the protivophylloxera station, the most effective methods of chamber fumigation of grape planting material with the use of methyl bromide and fumigant fostoxin at an ambient temperature of +1 to +10 degrees, i.e. when the pest is still in the hibernating stage (hibernating egg, larvae of the first instar are vagrants). Hibernating phylloxera eggs on varieties of American origin are attached directly to the shoots with the help of shoots, therefore American varieties are the most dangerous in terms of introducing a pest. Therefore, cuttings of these varieties require more careful processing.
Methods borrowed from biotechnology
To obtain sterile plants in biotechnology, in laboratories for microclonal reproduction of plants, substances are used - sterilizers, with the help of which various organs or their parts (leaves, petioles, apical (i.e., apical) meristems) are processed in order to destroy fungal and bacterial infections. Naturally, most of the methods of disinfection of plant material used in laboratories for micropropagation of plants cannot be used in everyday life, with the exception of some, the description of which is given below and may be useful.
In my practice, for sterilization in laboratory conditions (lignified and green grape cuttings), I used a number of substances - sterilizers, such as, for example, concentrated sulfuric acid, ethyl alcohol, mercury and chlorine-containing preparations. Of course, the use of such dangerous reagents as sulfuric acid or mercury is strictly prohibited, but milder and not dangerous compounds such as household bleach or ethyl alcohol are also not prohibited. All of them have antiseptic and disinfectant effects.
How can the planting material be disinfected with these means? This requires 70% alcohol and 7-10% chlorine solution. Chlorine is calcium hypochlorite. To prepare 70% alcohol, take 700 g of pure ethyl alcohol and 300 g of water. To prepare a solution of bleach, take from 70 to 100 g of the drug per liter of water. The exposure time in alcohol is from one minute to five, and in bleach it is kept from 10 minutes to half an hour. After keeping the cuttings in these solutions, they are thoroughly washed under running water and then planted in the ground. The slices are then updated.
To disinfect the material, you can also use the usual bleach - "Whiteness", which is sodium hypochlorite. The disinfecting effect of "Whiteness" and bleach is based on the release of chlorine and its passage through all plant tissues. At the time of passage, chlorine kills fungal and bacterial infections. In addition to the above compounds, you can also use hydrogen peroxide. The exposure time in it is about five minutes.
After exposure to sterilizer solutions, the plants are thoroughly washed in running water.
You can successfully use a ready-made chlorine-containing preparation called sodium dichloroisocyanurate, 97% (packaged in 100 g each) (NaDCC - DichloroisocyanuricAcid, Sodium Salt). For disinfection of planting material (including green cuttings and seedlings), usually take 5 grams of this drug per 1 liter of water (for long cuttings and seedlings, it is better to take 75 g per 15 liters of water). The drug is completely soluble in water, without precipitation. The optimum aging period for cuttings is 10-15 minutes. The remaining solution can be stored for a long time (up to a year) in a tightly closed glass container, preferably with a ground stopper. The drug is sold in pill form, which makes it very convenient to use.
Disinfection of green (vegetative) seedlings
Unfortunately, many vendors sell their products in the form of container grown vegetative seedlings. Naturally, this is much more profitable and more convenient for the seller, since the product can be sold throughout the growing season - from spring to late autumn. But it is precisely this kind of planting material that poses the greatest threat to the gardener, since such seedlings are much more difficult to neutralize from a pest, and even more so from pathogens of fungal and bacterial infections. In this case, the seedlings are freed from the substrate in which they were located, the root system is washed with water, and then the seedlings are completely immersed in a solution of some organophosphorus insecticide, and only then they are placed in tightly closed plastic bags. This operation cannot be carried out in the area where plants are supposed to be planted,so as not to introduce the pest with the soil or on clothing.
Read the next part. How to choose a grape variety →