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What To Remember When Buying Grape Seedlings
What To Remember When Buying Grape Seedlings

Video: What To Remember When Buying Grape Seedlings

Video: What To Remember When Buying Grape Seedlings
Video: Do You Know How Easy and Simple it is to ROOT Grape Vines CUTTINGS. 2023, March
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Do not deceive

grapes
grapes

In the thickets of grapes. These plants were planted in 1949

The title of this article contains one of the ten biblical commandments. In this case, we want to remind it to those sellers who, without conscience, sell seedlings and seeds of southern origin to our gardeners, which in our climate will clearly not please with the harvest.

The import of varieties of southern origin thousands of kilometers north is absolutely unjustified, pointless and dangerous. As many years of practice, including mine, show, such plants will not have time to go through all the phases of their development. They will eventually die, leaving behind spores or larvae of dangerous pathogens or plant pests. In addition, there have already been numerous examples of such experiments. For example, in the years 1930-1950, vineyards were laid on significant areas in the Moscow region, with such varieties as Madeleine Angevin and Malengr early. All of them gradually perished.

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Another example. From 1968 to the 80s of the last century, according to my observations, out of seventy varieties and forms of grapes of various origins, only a few representatives of the European-Amur hybrids, mainly of the first generation, remained on the territory of our Botanical Garden. According to my data, even first-generation hybrids, such as Vinny 3, do not have time to pass the phase of organic dormancy, and natural inhibitors necessary for the passage of dormancy and subsequent hardening of plants do not accumulate in the shoots and eyes in the autumn.

The only representative that, under our conditions, manages to go through all the phases of development - from sap flow to the entry into the phase of rest and natural leaf fall - is the Amur grape.

grapes
grapes

Here is a grape that grows in St. Petersburg at the Forestry Academy. Planted 1923

There, on the territory, there are also introduced species (introduction - resettlement of plants outside their natural range to new habitats for them - ed.) Of southern origin, such as walnut and gray walnut, catalpa and gleditsia, ginkgo biloba and even cherry laurel, which for decades are able to grow and develop in these conditions. Nevertheless, even under such conditions, after a relatively short period (several tens of years), such introduced species die due to insufficient heat supply during the growing season.

This also applies to grapes, with the exception of the Amur Grape and some first-generation hybrids. That is why in our botanical gardens there are very old specimens of this species, which grow without any shelter, starting from the 19th century. All other species, ever introduced even from the harshest places of their natural range, in severe winters and cold summers, such as in 1976, suffered from a lack of heat.

These include: Coastal grapes, Fox grapes, Frost-hardy grapes, Sakhalin (Japanese) grapes and even some forms of Amur grapes, obtained from the southern places of their natural range. My long-term experiments, since 1967, on testing some varieties and forms of grapes of various origins, and there were about two hundred of them, also indicate that only Amur grapes in our conditions are able to successfully pass all phases of development from sap flow and budding to natural leaf fall.

Artificial methods of raising the sum of active temperatures - covering with film or glass, planting near the walls of buildings and others, undoubtedly, increase the lifespan of grapes. However, even in such relatively southern zones of northern viticulture, which is the south of Belarus, the city of Pinsk, where the stronghold of viticulture is located, according to its head Anna Vladimirovna But-Gusaim, various complex interspecific hybrids of the Rapture type over several years due to a lack of heat gradually perish.

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How we are fooled

grapes
grapes

One of the Far Eastern grape varieties

I already wrote that in the post-perestroika years, a huge amount of all kinds of poor-quality planting material was brought for sale to the agricultural markets of St. Petersburg, Moscow and other cities. This applies not only to grapes, but to a number of other fruit and ornamental crops. Dear readers, they do not think about your future harvest. They are only interested in profit.

Let me give you a concrete example. While walking through an agricultural exhibition in Lenexpo, I approached a man who was selling grafted grape seedlings with beautiful deep-cut leaves. When I asked what sort it was, he answered, “Northern” without batting an eye. To my second question - what is it grafted on, the seller replied that the seedlings are rooted. Then I showed him the place of inoculation and told him how the "Severny" variety actually looks.

The seller immediately turned around and disappeared without even saying goodbye. Another lady with a Little Russian dialect was selling Isabella grapes. When I asked whether it will ripen in St. Petersburg, she said with confidence that she collects it in buckets every year in our Leningrad Region. As they say, no comment.

I also observed the following picture: a group of young people were selling seedlings grown from green cuttings at the end of September. To my question, how to plant them and at what time, the sellers boldly and confidently told that they should be planted directly in the open ground. And only after I approached the seller with claims that these seedlings would die already with the first slight October frosts, he agreed and even got a little embarrassed …

I also remember a case when apple and pear seedlings with two-meter one-year shoots were sold from a car at the end of May, and natural “samples” (not dummies) with the inscription Tonkovetka and Melba hung on the side of the car. Any more or less educated gardener knows that the fruits of the Tonkovotka pear and Melba apple trees (and of fantastically large sizes) will not last until May. Moreover, their size is very modest.

And a one-year-old sapling grown in our area will have shoots no more than half a meter. Of course, these schemers obviously brought seedlings from somewhere from Moldova, hanging the fruits of southern late-ripening varieties on the side. In response to my complaints, they simply asked not to interfere with the trading process and leave. There are a lot of similar examples. I am already beginning to doubt whether there are bona fide sellers in our markets and exhibitions?

Resellers

grapes
grapes

Amur grapes. Old Peterhof

I already wrote several years ago in some agricultural publications about this category of traders. They are distinguished by extreme arrogance, impudence and deceit, coupled with aggressiveness, when they offer an ignorant and gullible buyer, among whom there are many elderly people with low incomes, planting material brought, as a rule, from regions infected with dangerous quarantine pests and grape diseases.

Such material, as a rule, dies after the first wintering - this is at best, and at worst - grapes can winter for two to three years, while infecting healthy plants. As a rule, traders sell seedlings grafted onto phylloxera-resistant rootstocks, which are strictly prohibited not only for sale, but also for transportation. It is very easy to add the root form of phylloxera (phylloxera is a genus of insects from the aphid family, one species of which, imported from America, causes devastation to vineyards everywhere - ed.) Is very easy with rooted seedlings, and the leaf form - with cuttings of American hybrids.

For this reason, the import of any such planting material is prohibited! What do we see in reality? They are transported in huge consignments in trucks, vans, breaking the law, often bribing workers of quarantine services. For example, a huge amount of planting material (with soil), not only grapes, but also fruit and ornamental crops from Western Europe is imported into St. Petersburg every year, which is strictly prohibited by law!

As a result of this, over the past ten years, we have introduced a lot of all kinds of harmful organisms into our country, which we did not have before. According to some reports, more than 150 alien species of pests were introduced. And the method of fighting infections and pests is basically the same: chemical treatment using highly toxic pesticides, many of which cause cancer.

Pro

grapes
grapes

Grapes, grade Aleshenkin

This category of sellers of grape planting material is sometimes more dangerous due to the fact that they often know what they are doing. They have invented many tricks aimed at getting the gardener to buy cuttings or seedlings from them. The most common methods of deception are as follows. The seller assures you, for example, that all the material is treated with special preparations that completely kill the pest or infection.

But the processing may be of poor quality, or maybe it was simply not done (how will you check?). In addition, fungal spores or pest larvae can tolerate such treatments. That is why, probably, over the past 5-10 years, grape diseases such as mildew and powdery mildew have become commonplace in Belarus and the Moscow region for a long time. The law is the same for everyone - the import of planting material from a zone infected by quarantine pests is strictly prohibited.

Some seasoned growers, in order to advertise their variety and sell it at a higher price, begin to argue that this variety matures annually and gives high yields in the open field. In fact, such sellers are often cunning and grow their material in greenhouses or cover the plants with foil for some time, and at the same time have a very modest harvest. This happens all the time, and, alas, this is far from a new trick.

You need to know that the most dangerous quarantine pest of grapevine - phylloxera is now widespread in almost all zones of industrial viticulture: and this is all of Ukraine, the Rostov region with the city of Novocherkassk, where the All-Russian Research Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking is located, where the employees themselves brought it (according to L. P. Potapenko) back in the distant 70s. And it was almost impossible to get even cuttings from there. However, both in Ukraine and in the Rostov region, as well as in the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories, there are vineyards, from where in huge batches the seedlings are transported to zones free (once) from the pest.

As you know, money doesn't smell! Moreover, it seems to me that some professional growers do this specifically in order to subsequently start a new business for the production of already grafted planting material. What difference does it make to them whether you have phylloxera or not.

grapes
grapes

Grapes, grade Delight

Another duck was launched by a "group of enthusiasts" on our local TV. They voiced a commercial where they widely advertised varieties supposedly suitable for cultivation in the Leningrad region, including for cultivation in the open field. Among them, the Agat Don variety was named. I remember that I looked with sadness at my grapes of the same variety, which in a film greenhouse hardly ripened by mid-October. I cannot understand this lie.

Moreover, it seems that these people are trying to deceive themselves. Yes, Agat Donskoy will ripen in the open field once every ten years, and then on condition that before that there will be at least a couple of warm years for laying fruit buds. I can admit that Agat Donskoy, as well as Russian Korinka, will grow somewhere on the shores of Lake Ladoga, but in the form of a perennial grass, which will freeze over chronically immature vines every year.

But how long is such an unfortunate plant possible? A year, two, three, more? There can be no question of productivity here at all. These are the hucksters who are most harmful to our brother-gardener. And such examples, I think, can be cited indefinitely … Alas!

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