Table of contents:
Rowan. Sort Solnechnaya
The twentieth century was marked by the widespread introduction of many wild fruit and berry plants into the culture. Their active introduction into culture was dictated by a catastrophic decrease in the number of wild plants in nature, difficulty in harvesting, low productivity, besides, breeders wanted to "correct" the quality of fruits. Among the newly appeared crops in the garden there was also a mountain ash.
I. V. Michurin was the first to start creating rowan varieties with improved fruit quality. He, apparently, knew about her malleability when crossed with close and even distant relatives. Therefore, in working with her, I chose a very unusual way: crossing among themselves not only different types of mountain ash, but also crossing of mountain ash with representatives, albeit related, but of other genera, for example, an apple tree, a pear, a hawthorn, a medlar. The world practice did not know such a distant purposeful hybridization. The result of this work was marked by the emergence of a whole galaxy of varieties with completely edible fruits.
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Liqueur (a hybrid of rowan and chokeberry). A productive and winter-hardy variety with black fruits, but, unfortunately, apparently lost.
Burka (hybrid of sorbaronia with common mountain ash). It stands out for its short stature, early maturity - the fruits appear in 2-3 years, easy reproduction by green cuttings, winter hardiness and regular harvests. But the fruits, unfortunately, are only of mediocre taste, they are medium-sized, red-brown, tart. Used for recycling.
Pomegranate (hybrid of common mountain ash with blood-red hawthorn). IV Michurin wrote that it "… gives large fruits, with a cherry size, faceted shape, pleasant sweet and sour taste, without bitterness." The variety got its name "… for very spectacular clusters of pomegranate fruits". The tree is winter-hardy, productive, propagates well with green cuttings. This variety has been growing in my garden for a long time, and I made an unusual "spicy" jam from it.
Rowan pomegranate - a gift from Michurin
Michurinskaya dessert (a hybrid of liqueur mountain ash with medlar). IV Michurin characterized its fruits as "… sweet taste, with a very weak bitterness of mountain ash, which gives the fruits a peculiar, delicate, piquant taste." But, alas, a tree with reduced winter hardiness.
Scarlet large is one of the most valuable varieties for intensive crops. It was bred by complex hybridization of common mountain ash with Moravian and a mixture of pollen of different varieties of pears. The fruits are large, weighing 2.5–3 g, scarlet, very beautiful, reminiscent of cherries, juicy, sweet and sour, with a slight astringency. Tasting score - 3.0 points. They contain up to 23.5 mg% vitamin C, up to 1039 mg% P-active substances, 9-10 mg% carotene, 6.7 mg% iron, 13.8 mg% manganese. Ripening period - mid-September. In storage facilities with a regulated regime, they are stored for up to 7 months. A variety of dining and technical purposes.
Titanium. The variety comes from the pollination of mountain ash with a mixture of pear and apple pollen. Fruits weighing up to 2 g, intense dark cherry color, sweet and sour with light astringency. Tasting score - 3.7 points. They contain 31 mg% vitamin C, 930 mg% P-active substances, 10 mg% carotene. Ripen in mid-September. The variety stands out for its unusually long storage of fruits - up to 8-9 months.
Rowan. Ruby variety
Ruby. The variety is obtained by pollination of common mountain ash with a mixture of pollen from different pear varieties. Fruits weighing 1.3–1.4 g, dark ruby, wide ribbed, sweet and sour, pleasant taste with a slight tartness. Tasting score - 3.7 points. They contain 22 mg% vitamin C, 1190 mg% P-active substances, 6.6 mg% carotene, 13 mg% manganese. Ripening period - the end of September. The fruits are recommended to be used dried as dried fruits for compotes.
Varieties IV Michurin Alay large, Titan, and Rubinovaya in 1999 were included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements without Borders of Admission.
Followers of IV Michurin, following his scientific developments, created another group of new varieties. In addition, it came to the gardens and was zoned back in 1947, accidentally found in the nineteenth century in the forest of the Vladimir region and multiplied by the people, a sweet-fruited form of an ordinary mountain ash - Nevezhinskaya (the name was given by the location - the village of Nevezhino) and another sweet-fruited form - from the Sudeten mountains (Moravia) - Moravian (its taste is less interesting than that of Nevezhinskaya).
Nevezhinskaya mountain ash is often incorrectly called Nezhinskaya. This confusion is connected with the fact that once the famous wine merchant Smirnov, wanting to hide from competitors the true place of procurement of raw materials for his products, the tincture prepared at his factories from Nevezhinskaya mountain ash called Nezhinskaya. Thus, he addressed competitors to the city of Nizhyn, Chernigov province, where there was never any sweet-fruited mountain ash.
Nevezhinskaya mountain ash is quite edible fresh. For the future, it is harvested in a soaked and dried form. Folk breeding has created varieties of Nevezhinskaya mountain ash: Kubovaya, Zheltaya, Krasnaya.
In The bottom of a mountain ash fruits are orange-red, sweet-sour, weight 0.5 grams
The Yellow Rowan has fruits of about the same size, but orange-yellow.
In the Red Rowan, the fruits are large, bright red, and most importantly, sweeter. Trees of all varieties are winter-hardy, but, unfortunately, they are tall. Because of this, by the age of 15–20, it becomes difficult to collect fruits. Therefore, regular crown reduction and pruning for external lateral branching is required. And it can be grown in a bush-like form, for which a one-year-old is cut off above the third (counting from the root collar) of a well-developed bud and then formed in the form of a three-stemmed bush.
Using Nevezhinskaya mountain ash and its varieties in VNIIGiSPR (Michurinsk), several varieties were obtained and introduced into the State Register. The varieties Vefed and Angri originated from the Nevezhinskaya mountain ash.
Rowan. Variety Vefed
Vefed. Fruits weighing 1.2–1.3 g, orange-red, with low sheen, sweet and sour, pleasant to the taste, stand out with a complete absence of astringency and bitterness. Tasting score - 4.5 points. They contain 96 mg% vitamin C, up to 620 mg% P-active substances, 9-14 mg% carotene. Ripening period - mid-August. A variety of dining and technical purposes.
Angri. Fruits weighing 1.3–1.5 g, red with a slight yellowish tinge, juicy, pleasant sweet and sour taste, without astringency and bitterness. They contain 23.5 mg% vitamin C, 210 mg% P-active substances, 6.8 mo% carotene, 4.1 mg% iron, 13.8 mg% manganese. Ripening period - late August - early September. In a fruit storage with a controlled regime, fruits are stored for up to 1 month. It is used fresh, rubbed with sugar and for making jam, marmalade.
From seedlings of the variety Nevezhinskaya rowan Kubovaya, varieties Businka and Doch Kubovoy were obtained.
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Bead. Intensive type. Fruits weighing 1 g, round, shiny, bright, ruby-red, taste sweet and sour with a predominance of acid, reminiscent of cranberries. Tasting score - 4 points. They contain 75 mg% vitamin C, up to 166 mg% P-active substances, 9.3 mg% carotene. Ripening period - late August - early September. In a fruit storage with a controlled regime, fruits are stored until December. It is used for all types of processing, fruits are especially valuable as an acidifier in the preparation of juices, jelly, fruit drinks.
Kubova's daughter (Solar). Fruits weighing 1 g, juicy, pleasant sweet and sour taste, without astringency and bitterness, bright orange color with a slight reddish blush. Tasting score 4.5 points. They contain 101 mg% vitamin C, 163 mg% P-active substances, 13 mg% carotene. Ripening period - mid-August. In a fruit storage with a controlled regime, fruits are stored for up to 1 month. They are used fresh and for a variety of workpieces.
A form was selected from the seedlings of the Moravian mountain ash, which became the Sorbinka variety.
Sorbinka. The fruits are large, up to 2.6 g, red, with yellowness and pronounced subcutaneous yellow dots, the taste is sour with a slightly bitter mountain ash aftertaste. They contain 114 mg% vitamin C, 690 mg% P-active substances, 7.8 mg% carotene. Ripening period - the end of August, shelf life - 1.5–2 months. Used fresh and for workpieces. A notable feature of the variety is large shields with berries weighing up to 300 g.
The most delicious fruits are in the varieties Angri, Businka, Vefed, Rubinovaya, Sakharnaya Petrova. If the fruits of Rubinova are put in a gauze bag under a hot battery, then, as they dry up, they become like raisins. Varieties also differ in yield. The most productive are Burka, Businka, Scarlet large, in which at the age of 20 years the yield reaches 150 kg per tree, and each shield with fruits often weighs 400 g or more. At the same time, the varieties enter fruiting - at 3-4 years after planting the grafted seedling in the garden, Pomegranate, Burka begin to bear fruit, on the 6th - Businka, Titan, Scarlet large, and the rest - at 7–8 years. It is important that the trees of the varieties are usually lower than the wild-growing species of mountain ash, for example, in Granatnaya, Angri, Titan and Sorbinka, the height is 3-3.5 m, in Vefed - 2.5-3 m, and the Rubinovaya variety is generally dwarf type - 2, 1-2.3 m. Daughter Kubova and Beads have vigorous trees - 6-7 m.
Rowan. Sorbinka variety
The fruits of most varieties of mountain ash are simply "in their pure form", as we consume other gifts of the garden, until you eat too much, they are more suitable for various preparations, which stand out for their originality and piquancy of taste. Varieties Titan, Scarlet large and Burka are recommended for making juices, Businka and Sorbinka for mashed potatoes, Titan also goes for cooking seasonings, Angri is suitable for jam, marmalades, the fruits of this variety are good and mashed with sugar. And, of course, you can make original jam from each variety.
New varieties are highly adaptable to unfavorable growing conditions (temperature extremes, frost, drought), which largely determines their regular and abundant fruiting.
So far, you rarely find high-quality rowan in gardens. And it's a pity, because it is not only completely edible and more productive, but its fruits are also much more dietary than wild ones. The fact is that the excessive bitterness of mountain ash is created by parasorbic acid, which, apparently, is toxic and causes a feverish state. In the fruits of the converted, varietal rowan, this acid is less, which means that they are safer. At the same time, the composition and amount of biologically active substances in the fruits of varietal mountain ash, although they differ by varieties, are still quite high, close to the composition of fruits of wild mountain ash.
It is time for the transformed, varietal mountain ash with increased taste and dietary qualities of fruits to open the way to our gardens, especially in regions with risky and limited gardening. At the same time, saving the area of the site, it is possible to plant 1–2 trees on it and at the same time, somewhere in nearby places inconvenient for farming (for example, the slopes of a ravine), to create plantations for collective use of their harvest. But remember: although the varietal rowan has just come from the forest, it is already cultivated, and therefore a plant requiring care.
Photo by the author