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Video: Rosehip: Cultivation And Use
Little secrets of the beloved rosehip plant
Rosehip is a culture that has long attracted attention. The beauty of a flowering rose hip bush is difficult to convey in words - you need to see it! But this beauty is complemented by abundant, juicy bright green leaves.
Features of culture
The rosehip genus belongs to the Rosaceae family, and today it has over 380 species. In Russia, there are about 60 species growing both as separate plantations and in mixed forests. Rosehip can be found both in Western and Eastern Siberia, in the Far East and even on the Kuril Islands.
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Rosehip is a perennial shrub, the stem of which is densely covered with thorns. The leaves are alternate, pinnate with elliptical and ovate sharp-serrate leaves. Flowers are large, fragrant, solitary or in inflorescences 2-3 at the ends of the branches. Corolla has six lobes, depending on the species. The fruit is false, juicy, berry-shaped, spherical or elliptical, orange or brownish-red in color. Inside it has numerous light yellow nutlets.
Over the years of breeding work, varieties have been created that have an increased content of biologically active substances, resistance to abiotic and biotic environmental factors, high yield and a small number of thorns. Three main types of rose hips took part in the origin of most varieties - Webb rose, cinnamon rose and wrinkled rose. Due to the fact that the history of rosehip breeding is only a few decades old, the number of created varieties is still small.
The main, most frequently propagated varieties are rose hips of the VNIVI selection: Vitamin VNIVI, Vorontsovsky No. 1, Vorontsovsky No. 3, Russian No. 1, Russian No. 2, Besshipny, as well as selected forms from Rosa wrinkled (Yubileiny, Large-fruited). In recent years, this list has been supplemented with new varieties of the YNIIPOK selection: Ural Champion, Rumyany, Bagryany, Bokal, Luch. Here it is especially worth noting the variety Luch, the fruit yield from its bush reaches 4.2 kg, while the fruit weight reaches up to 5 g. The fruits of this rosehip variety contain up to 2400 mg / 100 g of vitamin C, over 25% of soluble solids, about 1% organic acids and up to 5.5% sugars.
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Agrotechnics of cultivation of wild rose
Naturally, it all starts with choosing a site. It is worth noting that the rose hip is a light-loving plant pollinated by insects. And naturally, good harvests are possible only in well-lit areas.
The harsh climate will help to transfer the planting of rose hips on the slopes of the northeastern exposure, with a good outflow of cold air from the site. It is not recommended to plant plants in lowlands, microdepressions. The soil composition of the plot plays a significant role in obtaining high yields of rose hips. Plants grow better on fertile chernozems with good aeration and moisture capacity, they do not tolerate swampy soils and soils with a close standing groundwater. Preparing the soil for planting rosehip plants consists in deep digging without everting out the subsoil horizons, the layer depth should be at least 40 cm.
Rosehip is very responsive to fertilization. Usually, spring application of organic (up to 15 kg / m2) and mineral (up to 20 g / m2 of the active substance of phosphorus and up to 15 g / m2 of potassium) fertilizers is carried out. Rosehips are usually planted in spring (before bud break) or in autumn. For planting, it is recommended to use one - or two-year seedlings. The landing pattern is 3x1.5 meters. After planting, the plants are provided with abundant watering, at least 1 bucket per bush. For spring planting in dry weather, 2-3 watering is required. The shaping of the rose hips consists in removing dry, broken, diseased and old branches, while leaving 3-5 young, strong shoots.
Harvesting and using fruits
Rosehip begins to bear fruit very early - as early as 2-3 years after planting. Harvested fruits during their full ripeness. But it is also impossible to allow them to overripe, since vitamins are destroyed in overripe fruits. Immediately after harvesting the fruits, you can start drying them.
To do this, sprinkle the rosehip in a thin layer and place in the oven. They should be kept there at a temperature not higher than 80 … 90 ° С for at least 2-3 hours. It is necessary to store dried fruits in dry rooms, without access to light, better - in paper bags, it is also allowed to use cardboard boxes or fabric bags as containers. The shelf life of dried fruits should not exceed two years.
A few words about the chemical composition and the use of rose hips. They represent a whole storehouse of biologically active substances. Among them are flavonoids, tannins and pectin substances, organic acids. There are oils and trace elements of the hematopoietic complex (iron, manganese, magnesium, calcium, potassium, copper, cobalt, zinc, chromium). Especially a lot of vitamin C in rosehips - up to 6%. This is 40-50 times more than in black currant and 100 times more than in lemon. V.E. Huseynova, Candidate of Pharmaceutical Sciences show that the consumption of 5-8 rose hips per day fully meets the body's need for vitamin C.
In addition to vitamin C, rose hips contain carotenoids (provitamin A), vitamins B 1, B 2, P, PP, E (tocopherol) and vitamin K. All this wealth determines a wide spectrum of the pharmacological action of rose hips. The fruits are used for vitamin deficiencies, as well as as a general tonic that increases the body's defenses. Vitamins P and C have a capillary-strengthening effect, increase elasticity and reduce vascular permeability. Carotenoids help to increase the body's resistance, accelerate the recovery process after injuries.
Rose hips also have a choleretic and diuretic effect. They are used in diseases of the liver, gallbladder (hepatitis, cholecystitis), kidney and urinary bladder.
The antimicrobial activity of rose hips has been established. At home, a water infusion can be prepared from rose hips. To do this, 10 grams of crushed fruits (about one tablespoon) must be placed in an enamel bowl and pour 200 milliliters (about one glass) of hot water, close the lid and heat in a water bath for 30 minutes. After that, the composition is left for 15 minutes at room temperature and filtered.
Take half a glass warm 2-3 times a day after meals. The infusion can also be prepared in a thermos, pouring 5-7 fruits overnight with boiling water. Currently, the pharmaceutical industry has launched the production of a number of preparations from rose hips.
Holosas is prepared from fruit extract and used in the complex therapy of hepatitis and cholecystitis.
Carotolin - is an oil extract of carotenoids, used externally as a wound healing agent.
Rosehip oil, used externally, is used for trophic ulcers, dermatoses, inflammation of the gums.
Children's rosehip syrup is produced, which is a multivitamin mixture of rowanberry juice, chokeberry, viburnum, cranberry and, of course, rosehip fruit.
An infusion of rosehip petals is also recommended. N is used as a skin care cosmetic.