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Delphinium, Species And Cultivation
Delphinium, Species And Cultivation
Video: Delphinium, Species And Cultivation
Video: Delphinium - Larkspur - Growing Delphinium 2023, February
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Delphinium Celestial Lace

Delphinium
Delphinium

My love for tall flowers brought a magnificent and majestic perennial delphinium to my garden. The first flowers were grown from a mixture of seeds ten years ago. These were the Pacific Giant varieties up to 200 cm high and the Blue Fountains up to 75 cm high. They still grow in my garden. I sowed the seeds in a cold greenhouse "before winter", in October. In the spring, at the beginning of May, the first shoots appeared. About 30% of the seeds have sprung up.

The first year the delphinium grows slowly, therefore, the seedlings were transplanted to a permanent place only next spring. In mid-June, almost all plants bloomed, but flowers showed their full beauty only in the third year. Soft blue, blue, purple with iridescence - they delighted me in early summer, and when I cut off the faded inflorescences by 10 cm, in September they bloomed again, although not so abundantly.

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Delphinium
Delphinium

Now on the market there are many new varieties of this magnificent plant, but, unfortunately, their seed germination is very low. The fact is that the seed reproduction of the delphinium has its own characteristics. Seeds should be sown immediately after harvest, or freshly harvested seeds should be stored in the refrigerator.

If you sow seeds of pink varieties before winter, then, most likely, plants with blue, blue or purple flowers will grow, since under winter germination, when the seedlings are exposed to thaws and frosts, causes a change in the reaction of cell sap in plants, as a result of which the color of flowers in many seedlings are changing. To avoid this, for varietal delphiniums, spring crops are taken in greenhouses or greenhouses, in which seedlings are provided with constant heat in the first period of their development.

Seeds must be sown on the soil surface, sprinkled with earth by 1 mm. They will germinate only in the dark, so crops need to be protected from light until the first shoots appear. Seeds can germinate within a month, depending on the conditions and the color of the flowers (seeds of varieties with dark flowers germinate longer than light ones). The optimum temperature for seed germination is + 18 ° C.

I sow delphinium seeds in August or March in a cold greenhouse. I lay them out on the surface of the moistened soil, slightly compact, sprinkle with a thin layer of earth sifted through a sieve. I cover it with a moisture-absorbing dark cloth folded several times. I water it over the fabric as it dries. I believe that in this way more comfortable conditions are created for seed germination, since the soil does not become waterlogged and does not overheat. By the way, in this way I propagate by seeds the bulk of all my plants. Only if light is needed for seed germination, I use a light-colored cloth.

The main types of delphiniums

Delphinium
Delphinium

The Russian folk names for delphinium are larkspur, or spur. However, in all countries of the world in floriculture, it is customary to use the Latin name - delphinium. The plant got its Latin name because of the resemblance of an unblown flower to a dolphin figure. Among delphiniums there are annuals, biennials and perennials.

In our gardens, cultivated delphinium, or hybrid - (cultorum) is mainly grown. Under this name, various forms and varieties are combined, obtained as a result of complex hybridization between tall delphiniums, large-flowered and other species.

Delphinium high (D. elatum L.). This species is often used in breeding, as it has a large supply of possibilities inherent in nature itself. It is a perennial herb. The stem is high, 80–150 cm or more (sometimes up to 300 cm), branched, glabrous. The color of flowers in most plants is blue or purple. In nature, it grows in the north and north-east of the European part of Russia, in Siberia, Mongolia, in the mountains of Northern Europe. Occurs in meadows, forest glades.

In addition to the high delphinium, Delphinium cheilanthum Fischer is used in ornamental gardening. He is considered the ancestor of cultivated varieties. In the wild, it is found in the meadows of Eastern Siberia. It is a perennial plant. Stem 45-95 cm tall.

Delphinium grandiflorum or Chinese (Delphinium grandiflorum L. = D. Chinensis). It is a perennial plant with a straight branchy stem 20-80 cm high. The flowers are bright blue, rarely white or pinkish. Grows wild in meadows and among bushes on rocky slopes in Eastern Siberia, the Far East, Korea, Mongolia and China. It was first found in Transbaikalia.

In addition to these natural species, they are used in ornamental gardening: Bruno delphinium (Brunonianum), holosteel delphinium (nudicaule), blue delphinium (glaucum), Kashmir delphinium (cashmerianum), beautiful delphinium (speciosum), red delphinium (cardinale).

Among the cultivated species are the Marfinsky hybrids. This is the result of the work of the Russian breeder N.I. Malyutin. He created varieties suitable for the conditions of central Russia. They are not inferior in decorative qualities to the best world varieties. In addition, the seeds of these hybrids convey maternal traits by almost 90%.

Growing conditions

Delphinium
Delphinium

The cultivated delphinium is a temperate plant. It develops best in cool and humid summers. In winter, plants have a long dormant period.

Delphiniums winter very well under a snow cover, withstanding frosts down to -40 ° C, but the alternation of frosts and thaws often causes their death, so I always cover my delphiniums for the winter, having previously cut them to 10-15 cm.In one place, without transplanting, plants can stay up to 8 years old. However, delphiniums severely drain the soil, so it is best to divide and replant them every four years.

Delphinium is a light-loving plant, but it can grow in partial shade. It shows all its beauty in fertile, deeply cultivated soils. In dry hot weather, the plant is watered abundantly. Surface watering is unacceptable. Delphinium must be tied to stakes. This also applies to young plants, since the shoots of some varieties are very fragile, in a strong wind they can break off at the root, and then the plant may die.

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Delphinium breeding methods

Delphinium
Delphinium

Seed propagation does not always convey the maternal characteristics of the delphinium, therefore, in order to preserve offspring from the most beautiful plants, delphiniums are propagated vegetatively by cuttings or dividing the bush.

I prefer an easier way of vegetative propagation - dividing the bushes. The best time for this is spring. When growth begins and shoots appear, I dig out the bushes and clear them of the earth. Between the shoots, with a sharp knife or shovel, I cut the rhizome. Each plot should have a shoot or bud and a sufficient number of healthy roots. Then I plant them in a permanent place and water them abundantly.

Using a plant in garden decoration

Delphinium
Delphinium

Delphinium goes well with clematis. Groups of delphiniums, combined from varieties with differently colored flowers, look especially beautiful. These plants are good for a wide variety of ornamental plantings.

Groups combined from varieties with differently colored flowers look especially beautiful. A successful neighborhood for delphiniums is lilies and especially park roses with white, yellow, pink and red flowers.

Delphinium pests and diseases

Powdery mildew forms a grayish-white bloom on the leaf surface. Downy mildew affects delphiniums in the fall during prolonged rainy weather. A white, mealy bloom appears on the underside of the leaves. Spraying the leaves with a solution of iodine (5 mg per 10 liters of water), tetracycline (1 tablet per 1 liter of water) or Topaz helps against powdery mildew.

Another very dangerous disease of delphiniums is bacterial wilting, which is promoted by both hot and humid weather. To prevent this disease, it is recommended to keep the seeds for 25-30 minutes in water heated to 50 ° C before sowing.

Bacterial diseases are more dangerous. Mainly, black spot of leaves is very common in delphiniums. Cool, humid weather contributes to the disease. Bacteria hibernate in the soil or under fallen leaves, so in the fall, you should remove garbage from the site, and carefully dig up the soil.

The young leaves of delphiniums are sometimes greatly damaged by various aphids. To combat them, you can use an infusion of garlic with laundry soap, infusion of tomato tops or calendula.

Delphinium
Delphinium

Delphiniums are also damaged by the delphinium (spur) tick. In this case, the leaves are deformed, brittle and curled. The buds damaged by the tick stop growing, turn brown and die.

With a strong defeat, the delphinium looks depressed, stunted, "curly", it does not form inflorescences. When a tick appeared on my delphiniums for the first time, I was sure that it was some kind of viral or bacterial disease, and for a long time I treated the plants with drugs against diseases without result. And only when I applied complex preparations against pests, I was able to help my flowers.

Severely infested shoots must be cut and destroyed. It is necessary to start fighting the pest in early spring, since insect eggs remain in the ground for a long time. The fight against the bush mite is complicated by the fact that it accumulates mainly on the underside of the leaves. In addition, when the leaf blade is deformed, chemicals during spraying do not fall into the niches where mites hide.

To prevent the spread of the tick, it is necessary to cut the stems of the delphinium low in early autumn (before mid-September) and burn them. The treatment of plants against the bore mite must be carried out for 2-3 years in a row, until the pest is completely destroyed. After such spraying, the bushes develop well and become highly decorative again.

Medicinal properties of delphinium

Delphinium high is an ancient folk remedy widely used for bone fractures (hence the name larkspur) in the form of lotions and healing compresses. It has an analgesic effect and speeds up recovery. However, care should be taken when dealing with the plant, you must thoroughly wash your hands at the end of the work, as the plant is very poisonous. It is included in medical complexes only when absolutely necessary and under the supervision of a doctor.

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