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Features Of Actinidia, Timing Of Flowering And Ripening
Features Of Actinidia, Timing Of Flowering And Ripening

Video: Features Of Actinidia, Timing Of Flowering And Ripening

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Actinidia species suitable for growing in cold climates

“… in the future (she) will completely displace both grapes and gooseberries from our gardens, because the taste qualities of berries of various varieties of actinidia are so good and varied that when compared with the berries of not only gooseberries, but also grapes, they turn out to be of higher quality, not speaking already about the remarkable aroma, that in grapes, and even more so in gooseberries, there is nothing to look for.

Actinidia
Actinidia

I live in the city of Lida, which is in Belarus. Recently, in our magazines, a lot of attention has been paid to plants that are promising for growing in the territory of the Republic of Belarus.

One of them is actinidia. It would seem that this is a novelty. But at the same time, it is reliably known that traces of the genus actinidia were found in brown coal deposits in the south of Belarus, which means that actinidia, an endemic of the Primorye Territory, simply returns to its ancestral home. At the same time, in publications all attention is paid to the description of only one type of actinidia - actinidia Kolomikta, which, indeed, can be grown throughout the territory of our republic.

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This actinidia can withstand temperatures down to -35 ° C, and in terms of vitamin C content is second only to rosehips - it contains from 0.5 to 1.7%, but it also has a number of disadvantages:

- its berries are small and not transportable, therefore it is necessary local processing;

- it has a low yield, in fact, a ten-year-old bush gives up to 1.5 kg of berries;

- the ripening of the harvest is not simultaneous, after ripening the fruits fall off and quickly deteriorate, although they ripen without losing their qualities, if they are prematurely removed 3-7 days before full ripeness.

Actinidia
Actinidia

But at the same time, now in most of the territory of Belarus, in particular, on the territory of the Grodno and Minsk regions, and even more so on the territory of Brest and Gomel, other types of actinidia and their hybrids are growing with great success, which give amazingly tasty fruits, in which a large amount of vitamin C - 0.1-0.12%, they contain potassium, calcium, sulfur, chlorine, iron, as well as zinc, selenium, bromine, copper.

The chemical composition of the actinidia fruits indicates that they are a source of biologically active substances and have medicinal properties. The aerial part, especially its leaf mass, is also a source of useful substances, since it contains a significant amount of ascorbic acid, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, coumarins, therefore, it can be used as a source of vitamin supplements, creating various teas and herbal remedies.

Particularly promising in this respect is actinidia polygam, which is already used in Japan in many medicinal preparations. Studies have shown that the leaf mass of female plants accumulates biologically active substances more than male plants.

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Features of actinidia

Actinidia
Actinidia

Hybrid variety of actinidia Original 14A

Actinidia is a liana that grows very quickly and can be used as an ornamental plant for vertical gardening, and the variegation of some of its species further decorates the garden. By the way, variegation is manifested in actinidia Kolomikt and actinidia Polygamum.

About two weeks before flowering, white tips appear on some of their leaves, and then they turn crimson. And this manifests itself in both female and male plants. After flowering, the leaves of these actinidia turn green again. This phenomenon is also observed on hybrid plants that were grown by crossing Actinidia Argut and Actinidia Purple.

Actinidia is a dioecious plant, although there have been cases where fruits are set with only female plants. Theoretically, up to 1% of plants grown from seed can be monoecious, and a good monoecious plant is of great value for creating self-fertile actinidia varieties.

Actinidia has one interesting feature - it does not have physiological falling of fruits, all the fruits that have been pollinated grow to maturity. The growth of the shoots of actinidia begins in late April or early May at an average daily temperature of + 4 … + 5 ° C, when a green cone of folded leaves appears from a bud hidden under the bark of a plant. At this time, return frosts are very dangerous for the plant.

The flowering of actinidia species occurs in different periods - first, around the end of May, Kolomikta blooms, after 12-15 days, when she has already set fruits, Arguta and Purple bloom, and after, after 5-7 days, Polygama blooms, therefore, the pollination between species no actinidia plants occur. Actinidia vines have very long vessels of wood, and the shoots themselves have almost infinite growth, hence the large increase in vegetative shoots. For example, in Argut actinidia, it reaches 4-6 m, while the tip of the vegetative shoot is in constant circular motion. If there is support, the tip of the shoot wraps around it in a counterclockwise direction.

The fruiting actinidia plant has three types of shoots:

- vegetative - they grow from dormant buds on perennial wood or from the root system, perform a supporting function;

- generative - perform the function of fruiting and are formed on an annual branch, have a length of 10-15 cm;

- generative-vegetative - they perform both a supporting function and a fruiting function, they are formed on the growth of the previous year.

Therefore, when planting actinidia in a permanent place, it is necessary to provide appropriate space for plant growth and place them no closer than 3-3.5 m from each other (for actinidia Kolomikt, 2.5-3 m can be left).

The timing of flowering and ripening of actinidia fruits

Actinidia
Actinidia

Fruits of actinidia Kiev large-fruited

It should be noted that not all the buds of a plant bloom at the same time, about one third of the buds remain dormant, which ensures the annual fruiting of plants even if previously opened buds or young branches are damaged by late spring frosts.

Male plants begin their development, as well as flowering 1-2 days earlier than female ones. Flower buds are laid in the leaf axils on young shoots of the current year, and, therefore, fruiting occurs on the shoots of the current year.

If you have a desire to receive information about actinidia, about its breeding, please call (Lida): (8-10-375) 01561-574-56, mob. tel.: 00375-444814998, email: [email protected] - Viktor Ivanovich Guzenko.

Read the next part. Planting actinidia →

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