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Black Currant, Red Currant (white), Golden Currant And Blood Red
Black Currant, Red Currant (white), Golden Currant And Blood Red

Video: Black Currant, Red Currant (white), Golden Currant And Blood Red

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Video: Red & Black Currant Harvest - MaVeBo Lewedorp | SFM Technology Harvester 2023, February
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Currant - a culture of triple use - for obtaining tasty fruits, garden decoration and for medicinal purposes

Multicolored currant
Multicolored currant

Multicolored currant

Currant is the most widespread berry crop in Russia. From time immemorial, the local population naturally collected berries and vegetative parts of currants for use in food and medical purposes.

In the XI century, currants were already cultivated in the monastery gardens. At present, by the number of varieties presented in the State Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation, currants are noticeably superior to other berry crops.

The genus of currant (Ribes L.) belongs to the family of gooseberries (Grossulariaceae) and includes about 150 species that grow in the cold and temperate zones of Europe, Asia, Africa, North and South America. In culture, only a few of them are represented, however, previously unused species are gradually included in the breeding process.

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Black currant
Black currant

Black currant

Black currant

Black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) is the most widespread and widely known type of currant in the culture. Its leaves have a characteristic odor, and the black-colored fruits have a characteristic taste. Through the efforts of domestic and foreign breeders, numerous varieties of black currants have been obtained, differing in the height and shape of the bush, resistance to diseases and pests, yield, size, taste, biochemical composition of fruits, etc. Here are some of them: Altai early, Bagira, Biryulevskaya, Grape, Vologda, Remembrance, Dobrynya, Dobrynya, Green haze, Little prince, Heiress, Nymph, Oryol serenade, Otradnaya, Memory Michurin, Perun, Primorsky champion, Constellation, Sofia, Tamerlane, Tatyana's day, Fairy of the night, Enchantress, Black pearl, Minx, Exotic, Elevesta, Vigorous, Yakut …

Recently, when creating new varieties of black currant, it is often crossed with closely related species - American currant (R. americanum Mill.), Sprouts currant (R. dikuscha Fisch.), Low-flowered currant (R. pauciflorum Turcz.) And others.

The obtained by T.V. Zhidekhina at the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Horticulture named after I.V. Michurina (Michurinsk) green-fruited varieties of black currant (Inca Gold, Emerald Necklace, Tear of Isis). The fruits of these varieties lack pigments, which determines the unusual color of the berries and their hypoallergenic properties. The consistency of the pulp and the taste of ripe berries of green-fruited currant varieties are practically indistinguishable from dark-colored black currant berries.

Red currants
Red currants

Red currants

Red currants

The red currant (Ribes rubrum L.), along with the common currant (Ribes vulgare Lam.), Is a group of red currants, inferior in prevalence to black currants. The fruits of the plants of this group are usually red-colored, which is reflected in its name. There are many varieties of red currants: Viksne, Gollandskaya krasnaya, Dar Orla, Jonker van Tets, Kievskaya, Konstantinovskaya, Krasnaya Kuzmina, Dream, Natalie, Ogni Urala, Svetlana, Schedraia, Yaroslavna, etc.

From a biological point of view, the white currant grown in gardens is a type of red currant, the fruits of which are pigment-free. There are significantly fewer varieties of white currants than varieties of black and red currants - Belaya Potapenko, Belaya Smolyaninova (Smolyaninovskaya), Versailles white, Snezhana, etc.

The varieties of red currants with pink fruits look very unusual - Dutch pink, Lyubava, Pink Champagne, Rossoshanskaya, Rose Chare, etc.

Golden currant
Golden currant

Golden currant

Golden currant

The homeland of the golden currant (Ribes aureum Pursh) is the Rocky Mountains of North America, located in the western USA and Canada.

Its plants are weakly branched shrubs up to 2 (less often up to 2.5-3) meters high. The leaves are small, three-lobed, glossy, similar in shape and size to gooseberry leaves. They do not have a characteristic currant smell and are beautifully colored in purple tones in autumn. The flowers are small, tubular, golden yellow with a strong spicy aroma reminiscent of cinnamon. Blooms in May for 10-20 days. Flowers are collected in dense drooping racemose inflorescences. Fruits are round, from small to large, with a persisting long dry perianth. Coloring of fruits in different specimens can be yellow, orange, brown, black. The fruits ripen in August. Ripening occurs unevenly, but ripe fruits do not crumble for a long time. The berries are suitable for consumption both fresh and processed. Their taste is peculiar, pleasant, refreshing.

The first domestic varieties of golden currant were obtained by I.V. Michurin (Purple, Ondine, Saffron). Later, Russian scientists created the varieties Venus, Druzhba, Ermak, Isabella, Laysan, Muscat, Salut, Shafak, etc.

Red currants
Red currants

Red currants

Blood red currant

The homeland of the blood-red currant (Ribes sanguineum Pursh) is the western part of North America. Under natural conditions, it is a shrub up to 2-3 m high (in the central part of Russia, as a rule, it does not exceed 1.5 m). Leaves 3-5-lobed, dark green, white-tomentose below. The leaf petioles are pubescent, glandular. It blooms in May for 3-4 weeks. The flowers are fragrant, five-membered, usually red (there are forms with white, pink, purple, double flowers). Fruits are black, covered with abundant waxy bloom, which makes them look bluish. Fruits ripen in August.

In culture, there are a few varieties of foreign selection (King Edward VII, Pulborough Scarlet and some others).

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Currant as a culture is an unpretentious shrub, however, for the maximum decorative effect and obtaining good yields, it needs to create optimal conditions. She prefers medium in structure, fertile, normally provided with moisture, soils with a slightly acidic reaction. On heavy clay soils, in lowlands with stagnant water, currants develop poorly. Its development is also oppressed by the nearby groundwater (1-1.5 m from the earth's surface). When placing currants on the site, preference should be given to places well-lit by the sun throughout the day. Currants can also tolerate shading, but this happens to the detriment of flowering and fruiting. To obtain good yields on the site, at least three different varieties of currants of the same type should be planted. This is due to the fact that most of its varieties are self-fertile.Currant is a fairly drought-resistant crop (the most heat- and drought-resistant species is golden currant), however, if there is a prolonged absence of precipitation, it is advisable to irrigate it. Currant is responsive to fertilization, top dressing, mulching, shallow loosening of the soil, and weed removal. Currant bushes need regular pruning (the optimal time for this procedure is late autumn or early spring). At the same time, shoots older than 5-6 years are removed (they bloom and bear fruit poorly), as well as thickening, weak, damaged, disturbing the shape of the bush.Currant bushes need regular pruning (the optimal time for this procedure is late autumn or early spring). At the same time, shoots older than 5-6 years are removed (they bloom and bear fruit poorly), as well as thickening, weak, damaged, disturbing the shape of the bush.Currant bushes need regular pruning (the optimal time for this procedure is late autumn or early spring). At the same time, shoots older than 5-6 years are removed (they bloom and bear fruit poorly), as well as thickening, weak, damaged, disturbing the shape of the bush.

When planting in biennial blackcurrant seedlings, all available shoots are cut to a height of 15 cm, leaving 2-4 well-developed buds on each and planted in a permanent place with an inclination of 45o, deepening their root collar to a depth of 6-8 cm.Other types of currants are planted without tilting and shortening the shoots.

Black, red and golden currants are highly winter-hardy and perfectly tolerate frosty winters without shelter both in the European part of Russia and in the Urals, Siberia, and the Far East. Blood-red currants are characterized by low winter hardiness, and it is advisable to bend (pin) to the ground and cover its shoots for the winter, but the subsequent beautiful abundant flowering will pay handsomely for such work.

Black currant
Black currant

Black currant

Black and red currants can be affected by a number of pests and diseases (anthracnose, septoria, powdery mildew, terry, kidney mites, glass, aphids, etc.), so measures are needed to prevent their appearance and development. Golden and blood-red currants are practically not affected by diseases and pests. Currants are propagated by dividing bushes, root suckers, layering, green and lignified cuttings, tissue culture. For decorative purposes, golden and blood-red currants can be propagated by sowing seeds.

Usually, currants are used exclusively as a berry plant, but it is also suitable for use in ornamental gardening. Particularly decorative are golden currants and blood-red currants during the flowering period. The flowers of black and red currants are dominated by green tones, and against the background of foliage, their inflorescences are poorly visible. All types of currants decorate ripening berries. Black currant has several decorative forms: f. heterophylla (variegated), f. marmorata (with marble-spotted leaves), f. variegata (variegated). Interesting forms of blood-red currant with white, pink, red, purple, double flowers. Currants can be used both in single and group plantings. It can be used to form hedges and curbs of various heights. It can be included in the rabatka, mixborders, tree and shrub groups.

Standard forms of currants look very interesting. In this case, a straight trunk of golden currant is used as a strainer, onto which, by means of improved copulation in the spring (during the period of active sap flow), a cutting of currant is grafted at a height of 50-100 cm (you can also use gooseberries). Due to the high winter hardiness of the stock and scion (if it is not a blood-red currant), such a standard plant does not need to bend to the ground and shelter, unlike the standard forms of roses or Japanese quince.

The options for using currants for medicinal and food purposes can be found in the specialized literature. Currant berries are valuable because they contain many biologically active substances: vitamins A, B 1, B 2, B 6, C, K, P, PP, pectin substances, sugars, organic acids, macro- and microelements, etc.

As a triple-use culture, currants deserve a worthy place in personal plots.

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