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Black Raspberries - Varieties And Features Of Culture - Turn, Ember And Luck
Black Raspberries - Varieties And Features Of Culture - Turn, Ember And Luck

Video: Black Raspberries - Varieties And Features Of Culture - Turn, Ember And Luck

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Video: All you need to know about black raspberries 2023, February
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Black raspberry - a promising garden culture

Raspberries in Russia are widespread everywhere where people are engaged in agriculture. Initially, people were satisfied with the wild raspberry plants brought from the forest, but over time this became not enough, and highly productive varieties came to replace the wild species, the ancestors of which were two species: common raspberry - Rubus idaeus L. and black raspberry - Rubus occidentalis L.

Variety Rotation
Variety Rotation

Black raspberry itself is divided into two subspecies: black or black raspberry - R. occidentalis L. and purple raspberry - R. neglectus Peek.

Features of culture

Black raspberry is a plant with a perennial root system and a two-year aerial one. The bush reaches a height of 2.5-3 m and has a semi-spreading shape with arched overhanging, and in black raspberries, slightly inclined tops of the shoots.

Annual shoots of black raspberries are covered with a gray waxy bloom of various tones and thorns - thick, strong and directed to the base of the shoot, as for two-year shoots, they, on the contrary, are dark brown with a lilac or bluish bloom and an inflorescence like a shield, and in purple raspberries - reddish brown with a lilac tint and a brush-like inflorescence.

The fruit is a composite drupe (berry) hemispherical, and in purple raspberries, it is rounded. The berry is easily separated from the fruit. A distinctive feature of the culture is small (up to 1.5 g) or medium (up to 2 g) berries. The color of the berries is black or yellow in black raspberries and purple or pinkish-yellow in purple raspberries.

In terms of resistance to diseases and pests, both varieties of black raspberries are characterized by different susceptibility to anthracnose leaves, gray berry rot, common spider mite and raspberry-strawberry weevil. Winter hardiness of black raspberries is slightly lower than that of red raspberries. In order to successfully overwinter, its shoots should be bent down in the fall and covered for the winter with insulating material or snow. Drought resistance in black raspberries is higher, and soil requirements are lower than in red raspberries. This is due to the presence of a powerful root system in it, which goes down to a depth of 1.5 m and provides water and mineral nutrition.

Black raspberries differ from red and black raspberries in their higher content of sugars, vitamin C, pectin and tannins. Black raspberries contain less acids, more minerals - copper, iron, manganese. These elements, in combination with folic acid, have a positive effect on people suffering from various blood diseases.

Black raspberry varieties

In Russia, black raspberry varieties were obtained at the Research Institute of Horticulture of Siberia named after I. M.A. Lisavenko (Barnaul) V.A. Sokolova, and they are recommended, including for the conditions of Siberia, especially for amateur gardeners:

Gift of Siberia - a variety of early middle ripening period. The bush is 2.5-2.8 m high, powerful, strongly spreading, forms 9-12 shoots of replacement, does not give shoots. Biennial stems are light brown, horizontally directed. The thorns are short, firm, curved downward, located along the entire shoot. Annual shoots are arched, green, with a strong waxy bloom of gray color. Thorns are few, they are located throughout the shoot, rigid, solitary, curved downward.

Berries weighing 1.6-1.9 g, bright cream, hemispherical, slightly pubescent. The drupes are large, homogeneous, with the fruit they are medium-bonded, the bones are small. Ripening is amicable, the harvest is harvested in 2-3 harvests. When ripe, the berries do not crumble; when harvested, they are easily separated from the fruit. The pulp is juicy, tender, gelatinous, sweet-sour taste. The berries contain 12% vitamin C, 8% sugars, 0.96% organic acids, 0.68% pectin and 0.59% tannins.

The yield is good. In the second year after planting, 2.5 kg are harvested, in the third - 3.7, in the fourth - 4.3 kg from the bush. Winter hardiness is good, drought resistance is satisfactory, gray rot of berries is noted among the diseases in years when a large amount of precipitation falls during the fruiting period. To preserve the harvest in such seasons, the berries should be picked every other day, then the disease will not cause significant economic damage.

The turn is a variety of early middle ripening period. The bush is 2.4-2.6 m high, powerful, spreading, forms 6-9 shoots of replacement, does not give growth. Biennial shoots are brown, horizontally directed. Thorniness is average, along the entire shoot, thorns are of medium length, firm, bent down. Annual shoots are bluish-green with a strong waxy bloom, with tops inclining to the ground, not pubescent.

Berries weighing 1.6-1.9 g, black, hemispherical, without pubescence. Drupes are medium, homogeneous, firmly fastened to each other, with medium fertility. Ripening is amicable, the harvest is harvested in 2-4 harvests. When ripe, the berries do not crumble; when harvested, they are easily separated from the fruit. The pulp is juicy, slightly viscous, sweet taste with a slight acidic sensation, has high gelling properties. The berries contain 16.8% vitamin C, 10.4% sugars, 1.1% organic acids, 0.88% pectin and 0.64% tannins.

The yield of this variety is high. In the second year after planting, 3.5 kg are harvested from the bush, in the third - 5.2, in the fourth - 6.8 kg. Good winter hardiness, average drought resistance, high resistance to diseases and pests.

Coal is a variety of early ripening. The bush is 2.2-2.5 m high, of medium thickness, moderately spreading, forms 9-12 shoots of replacement, does not give growth. Biennial shoots are gray-brown with a strong waxy bloom, horizontally directed. The spine is weak, the spines are of medium length, firm, curved downward. Annual shoots are green with a strong waxy bloom of bluish color, arched in shape.

Berries weighing 1.5-1.8 g, black, broadly blunt-conical, slightly pubescent. The drupes are medium, homogeneous, firmly fastened to each other, with medium fertility. Ripening is amicable, the harvest is harvested in 2-4 harvests. When ripe, the berries do not crumble; when harvested, they are easily separated from the fruit. The pulp is juicy, viscous, sweet-sour taste, with a slight astringency, has high gelling properties. The berries contain 12% vitamin C, 6.6% sugars, 0.96% organic acids, 0.84% ​​tannins and 0.73% pectin substances.

The yield is good. In the second year after planting, 2 kg of berries are collected from the bush, in the third - 3, in the fourth - 5.5 kg. Winter hardiness and drought resistance of the variety are average, resistance to diseases and pests is high.

Luck is an early ripening variety. The bush is 1.7-2 m high, of medium thickness, slightly spreading, forms 8-11 replacement shoots, does not give growth. Biennial shoots are brown, horizontally directed. The spine is weak, the spines are single, short, firm, curved downward with a brown base.

Berries weighing 1.8-2.2 g, hemispherical, creamy, dense, slightly pubescent. The drupes are medium, homogeneous, medium-sized with fruit, the bones are small. Ripening amicably, the harvest is harvested in 2-3 harvests. The berries do not crumble; when ripe, they are easily separated from the fruit. The pulp is juicy, tender, sweet-sour taste, somewhat bland, viscous, has high gelling properties. The berries contain 12% vitamin C, 10.1% sugars, 1.1% organic acids, 0.7% pectin and 0.25% tannins.

The yield is high. In the second year, 3.3 kg are harvested from the bush, in the third - 4.2, in the fourth - 5.5 kg. Winter hardiness and resistance to diseases and pests are high, drought resistance is average.

The main assortment of black raspberries was created in the USA, where this crop was widespread. Most varieties are not winter-hardy, so they are not very suitable for the conditions of central Russia. However, some of these varieties can still be successfully grown in regions with mild winters or when shoots are sheltered before winter. The most famous varieties are Cumberland, Airlie Cumberland, Bristal and New Logan.

Cumberland variety
Cumberland variety

Cumberland is the most famous black raspberry in Russia. A bush of medium height (1.5-2.0 m) with arcuate curved shoots, covered with numerous sharp thorns and a thick waxy bloom. Does not form root offspring.

Berries weighing up to 2 g, round, black-purple, shiny, with a whitish bloom between the drupes, sweet with a blackberry flavor, transportable. The berries ripen together and are easily separated from the fruit.

Average winter hardiness, it is advisable to cover the shoots with snow or other insulation material. The variety is resistant to major diseases and pests, but in rainy seasons it is severely damaged by anthracnose. Productivity reaches 3-4 kg of berries from a bush.

Earley Cumberland is close to the Cumberland variety in terms of its economic, biological and morphological characteristics, however, it differs in an earlier ripening of the crop.

Bristal is one of the most productive varieties of black raspberries with large, sweet and transportable berries. The disadvantages of the variety include reduced winter hardiness and instability to anthracnose.

New Logan is close to the Cumberland variety. The main distinguishing features are - earlier ripening periods, increased resistance to anthracnose, lower winter hardiness.

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