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Growing Gumi - Multiflorous Sucker
Growing Gumi - Multiflorous Sucker

Video: Growing Gumi - Multiflorous Sucker

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A relative of the sea buckthorn - the multifloral sucker - appears in the northern gardens

In recent years, a new original plant, gumi, has begun to appear on the garden plots of the European part of Russia. Of course, only the most enthusiastic gardeners, lovers of new products, including those near St. Petersburg, grow it so far. But, given the noticeable warming of the climate and the value of the fruits of the plant, there is no doubt that gumi will win more and more new supporters.

Gumi
Gumi

Gumi

What is this curiosity?

Gumi is a relative of sea buckthorn. This plant belongs to the Lokhovy family. Gumis (Japanese name) grown by enthusiastic gardeners are referred to as the multiflorous oak tree.

The homeland of gumi is central China, it grows in Japan, it is found in southern Sakhalin (it was introduced there during the occupation of the island by the Japanese).

The multiflorous oak tree is a tree-like shrub 0.8-1.4 m high. The leaves are rather large, dense, bright green, with a silvery-metallic sheen on the back.

The plant is monoecious. One bush can also bear fruit, but several plants need to be planted to better guarantee pollination. Gumi flowers are elongated, bell-shaped, with a pleasant strong aroma, and attract many pollinating insects. The fruits are bright red, covered with silvery dots. On the bush, they hang on thin long stalks, which significantly, compared to sea buckthorn, facilitates harvesting. The fruits are cylindrical, about 2 cm long, 1 cm in diameter.

An oblong bone with a grooved surface is located inside the fruit. The fruits are sweet with a pleasant peculiar taste. Fresh fruits are wonderful as a dessert, frozen ones will pleasantly diversify the table in winter, dried ones are good for decoctions and infusions. Jam, compotes, jellies, juices, and wine are prepared from the fruits of the multifloral sucker.

As established by scientists, gumi is a multivitamin plant that is not inferior in its useful properties to sea buckthorn. According to the data of the GBS RAS, gumi fruits are characterized by an exceptionally high content of amino acids, contain a lot of leucine and proline. In total, 17 amino acids were identified in gumi fruits, including 7 essential for humans. A decoction of the leaves is used for colds. The Japanese consider gumi to be the fruits of longevity and youth.

The plant blooms in late July - early August. The multiflorous oak tree is planted on elevated southern slopes or near buildings, where more snow accumulates, since it is more drought-resistant than sea buckthorn. Gumi, like sea buckthorn, has a superficial root system. This is associated with increased requirements for soil preparation and mulching.

Gumi does not grow well on acidic soils. Therefore, before planting, it is better a year before it, it is necessary to lime this area. Given that the root system of this plant is located much wider than the crown of the bush, especially on light soils, local cultivation of planting pits is not enough. On heavy, clayey soils, where verkhovodka is the main type of moisture, the creation of large planting pits with loose soil is especially undesirable, since they will act as wells where water from the surface accumulates. Thus, the root system will constantly be in conditions of excess water and lack of oxygen, which leads to oppression of the plant.

Soil preparation begins at least one year in advance. Continuous liming reduces acidity, promotes better mineralization of organic matter, fertilizers. With an average acidity of the soil, 300-500 g of lime materials are consumed per 1 m2. After 4-5 years, liming is repeated. Under continuous digging, organic fertilizers (manure, compost) are applied at the rate of 15-20 kg / m2, on heavy soils, sand is added - 10-20 kg / m2, on sand - a possible amount of sod land.

When digging the soil, it is necessary to carefully remove the rhizomes of perennials - creeping wheatgrass, dreamy, dioecious nettle. If the soil is heavily infested with wheatgrass and flushing 2-3 times during the growing season, the soil is treated with a pitchfork - to a shallow depth with a sample of rhizomes. The preparation of planting holes for spring planting begins in autumn, and for autumn planting - at least two weeks before the soil settles and the initial period of decomposition of organic matter passes. On light soils, they dig a hole 30-35 cm deep (for one and a half bayonets of a shovel) and fill them with a mixture of rotted manure or humus and soil of the site 1: 1.

On clay soils (due to the above reasons), a surface soil layer is prepared for planting. 1 m? 200 g of double superphosphate are introduced and all this is carefully dug up. Superphosphate is indispensable for the normal functioning of nodule bacteria on the roots of gumi. Gumi consumes little nitrogen, and potassium removal is insignificant. When planting, the seedling is buried 3-5 cm and the soil is immediately mulched.

Top dressing begins in the third year. The first is carried out in April over the snow with nitrogen fertilizers: ammonium nitrate (20 g / m2) or urea (15 g / m2). Nitrogen fertilizers dissolve easily, with water they penetrate into the soil and by the beginning of plant growth they find themselves in the zone of the active part of the root system. In May and June, two dressings are carried out: one with full mineral fertilizer, and the other organic (infused and diluted mullein, or green fertilizer).

But since July, the introduction of nitrogen is limited and superphosphate is introduced (10-15 g of double superphosphate). When using simple superphosphate, the dose is doubled. Potash fertilizers are applied at the same time - 10-15 g / m? viburnum salt or 50 g of ash. In the fall, repeat the same top dressing. All this is done to prepare the plants for winter.

Here, in the Leningrad region, Viktor Sitnik is successfully engaged in the cultivation and reproduction of the multiflora sucker. Back in 1969, in Ukraine, in Lvov, he planted a small rooted cut. By the way, this plant still grows well and bears fruit there, despite the shade. And since 1983 he has been growing gumi near Mgoy (50 km from St. Petersburg). The plants grown and propagated by him are resistant to our climatic conditions.

The only requirement that the gardener adheres to is that the branches of the plant must be gradually bent to the ground from September, so that they finally end up under the snow in winter. He does not recognize any additional cover. Everything is done as when sheltering raspberries and Japanese quince. Under the snow, plants calmly tolerate frosts at -35 ° C. Uncovered branches freeze, but then quickly recover in summer. To the statement that gumi sometimes freeze out, Victor replies that apple trees, cherries, plums and other crops also sometimes die in our climate, but no one refuses to grow them.

In addition, this gardener believes that gumi is a wonderful fruit and ornamental plant with a brilliant future, since it has excellent decorative properties, generous and stable yield of tasty and medicinal berries. It is unpretentious, requires minimal maintenance, is not damaged by pests, is not affected by diseases, the crop is easily and quickly harvested. The bush is very decorated during the growing season.

Unlike sea buckthorn, gumi does not give offspring. Begins to bear fruit from 4-5 years of age. And at 15-20 years old it gives up to 20 kg of berries. Trimming it is minimal. From the age of ten, broken and intertwining branches are removed from the plant, and from the age of fifteen, rejuvenating pruning is carried out. Gumi is propagated by seeds (serious stratification is needed), layering, cuttings, dividing the bush.

The climate is warming now. And, apparently, soon many gardeners will start actively cultivating gumi in their gardens.

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