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The Main Pests And Diseases Of Raspberries
The Main Pests And Diseases Of Raspberries

Video: The Main Pests And Diseases Of Raspberries

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Raspberry Diseases and Pests 2023, February
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The main pests of raspberries

  • Raspberry beetle
  • Raspberry and strawberry weevil
  • Raspberry kidney moth
  • Raspberry glass
  • Raspberry stem gall midge
  • Raspberry shoot gall midge or raspberry gnat
  • Raspberry stem fly
  • Raspberry mite
  • Spider mite

Major diseases of raspberry

  • Anthracnose
  • Purple spot, or didimella
  • Verticillary wilting
  • Botrytis, or gray rot
  • Ulcerative spot
  • Root cancer, or goiter of the roots
  • Viral and mycoplasma diseases

The main pests of raspberries

Raspberries
Raspberries

The most dangerous pests for raspberries are the raspberry beetle, raspberry-strawberry weevil, raspberry stem gall midge, raspberry shoot gall midge or raspberry gnat, raspberry stem fly, aphid, raspberry mite, spider mite, leafhopper.

Raspberry beetle

Raspberry plants are harmed by adult beetles and insect larvae. After overwintering in the soil near the bush at a depth of up to 10 cm, first light brown, and then grayish brown beetles appear in late May - early June. At this time, they settle on weeds and early flowering berry bushes, and when buds appear, they switch to raspberries. Beetles gnaw holes in buds and eat away their contents. In young leaves, they gnaw tissues between second-order veins. The females then lay their testicles in a flower or at the base of the ovary. The insect larvae that appear after 10 days spend three days outside the fruit, and then bite into the berry, feed on the fruit, sometimes drupes. The berry usually contains one yellowish-white larva with dark brown spots on the back. The larvae pupate in the soil, turning into beetles.

Control measures: loosening the soil in autumn and spring in violation of the wintering place of beetles, mulching the soil under the bushes with a thick layer of loose mulch materials, destroying weeds on which the beetle feeds before moving to raspberries, shaking off and killing beetles.

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Raspberry and strawberry weevil

The main damage to plants is caused by females of a grayish-black beetle with a long trunk during oviposition. After overwintering under plant debris in plantings of raspberries or nearby, beetles appear in late April-early May, eat out small pits or holes on the petioles and leaf blades, and then, gnawing holes in the buds, they get to the anthers. The female lays one egg per bud, disguises it and gnaws at the peduncle. After a while, the bud falls off.

Control measures: the same as against the raspberry beetle.

Raspberry kidney moth

The main harm is caused by the larvae, which, during the swelling of the buds and the extension of the green cone, leave the wintering place and penetrate into the buds of raspberries. The larvae eat up the contents of the bud, leaving only the covering scales, bite into the core of the shoot and pupate here. During flowering, adult dark brown butterflies appear with yellow spots on the front wings. They lay one egg per flower. New caterpillars feed on fruit without touching the berry, and during harvesting they go down the stem, climb into cracks in the bark at a height of about 30 cm from the soil. Caterpillars overwinter in white cocoons.

Control measures: careful cutting of the fruiting stems without leaving hemp and burning them. With a significant accumulation of the pest during the period of swelling of the kidneys - spraying with karbofos or fufanon (75-90 g per 10 l of water).

Raspberry glass

Damage to plantings is caused by white caterpillars with a brown-yellow head. Butterflies are bluish-black in color with lemon-yellow rings on the abdomen and resemble wasps. Massive insect years and egg-laying occur in July-August. The female lays one egg on the ground at the base of the shoot. The caterpillars that have emerged from them penetrate under the bark, making spiral and ring-shaped passages under it, bite into the core, where they winter. In the place of wintering of pests, a swelling forms on the shoot. After winter, the caterpillar moves along the stem for some time, then gnaws at the outlet for the future butterfly and pupates. Damaged shoots barely bear fruit, wither, break and dry out.

Control measures: cutting out all damaged stems and burning them, mulching the soil under the bushes.

Raspberry stem gall midge

The larvae cause harm. The active years of the pest occurs during the period of mass flowering of raspberries. Females lay eggs in groups of 8-15 on the bottom of young shoots. The orange-yellow caterpillars emerging from the larvae penetrate the shoots and after 3-4 weeks they form swellings, the bark bursts and falls behind. Caterpillars hibernate in galls in separate chambers.

Control measures: Cutting and burning of damaged stems in autumn and early spring.

Raspberry shoot gall midge or raspberry gnat

The larvae cause damage to the plant. They hibernate in cocoons in the upper soil layer at the base of raspberry shoots. Years of adult insects of the first generation occurs in the second decade of May. The female lays eggs under the bark of young shoots, which by this time reach a height of 20-40 cm. The pest prefers worn places, cuts, wounds and cracks on the shoots. A week later, white larvae appear from the eggs, they live under the bark, then turn pink, turn orange, and after two weeks go into the soil and pupate at the base of the shoot. The emergence of a new generation and the laying of eggs occurs in 3-3.5 weeks from the moment of pupation. The female can lay eggs in the lateral fruit branches. Often, the larvae of the last generation remain on the shoots during the harvesting of seedlings. Together with them, the pest is introduced into new plantings.

Control measures: selection of resistant varieties, use of healthy planting material, thinning of shoots, digging up the soil in autumn and spring. With a large number of pests, spraying during the growth of shoots with a solution of karbofos, kinimix, bitoxibacillin.

Raspberry stem fly

The larva causes damage to plants. The fly's massive summer occurs in mid-May. The female lays one egg at the tops of young shoots. After a week, larvae appear there, which eat 2-8 ring-shaped channels under the shoot skin, gradually sinking down the shoot. The places of these channels are visible on the blue rings of the bark. Above the point of damage, the top of the stem bends, withers, blackens and decays. The shoot stops growing. The larva under the skin of the stem descends to the base, emerges from it, burrows into the soil and hibernates.

Control measures: cut and destroy the tops of damaged stems, loosening the soil in late autumn and early spring to disturb wintering sites, mulching the soil in early spring with a powerful layer of mulch material, with a large number of pests, spraying with pesticides (carbofos, kinimix or bitoxybacillin).

Raspberry mite

Adult females hibernate under the scales of raspberry buds. During bud break, the pests settle and concentrate on the underside of the leaf. Damaged leaves from above are covered with pale green oily, vague spots, become ugly. At the end of August, at temperatures below + 11 ° C, the ticks lose their mobility and go to winter in the buds of young shoots.

Control measures: plantation plantation with healthy material, do not plant tick-sensitive varieties.

Spider mite

Adults hibernate on weeds, under leaves and other debris. In May they spread to more mature leaves. Infected leaves first become covered with light dots, then turn yellow and dry out. The thickened and clogged areas of plantings with weakened or old shoots are more affected. With poor mineral nutrition, the plantings are damaged more. The mite dramatically reduces the productivity of plantings.

Control measures: removal of weeds and debris from the plantation - wintering places for adults. During the period of the pest settling on raspberries, treatment with pesticides - in the spring before bud break - with nitrafen (200-300 g per 10 l of water), before flowering and after harvesting with karbofos (75-90 g per 10 l of water).

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Major diseases of raspberry

Raspberries
Raspberries

Anthracnose

Symptoms of the disease appear on shoots, leaves, buds and berries, but they are most noticeable on shoots in the form of deep gray specks, which, growing, merge with neighboring ones, turning into large deep gray rounded spots with purple edges. Later, the affected surface of the shoot, several centimeters long, is covered with a brownish, rough, cracking tissue. In this case, the healthy surface of the shoot rises above the affected one, and the shoot looks warty. Leaves affected by a fungal infection become perforated, curl and fall off prematurely. The buds either do not develop at all, or form weak fruit branches. Affected drupes remain green, so the berry is irregular and unripe.

Control measures: selection of resistant varieties, plantation establishment with healthy material, timely implementation of agrotechnical measures.

Purple spot, or didimella

The first signs of fungal disease are characteristic purple spots around the base of the leaf. Growing up, the spots merge into larger ones, covering a significant part of the shoot. By autumn, the shoots in the affected areas become gray and cracked, or form weak fruit twigs the next year.

Control measures: the use of more resistant or hardy varieties, exclude thickening of the plantation, protect the cover tissues of the shoots from mechanical damage. Spraying shoots in the spring before bud break with a 3% Bordeaux liquid, in summer before flowering and after harvesting - with a 1% solution.

Verticillary wilting

The causative agent of the disease is located in a thirty-centimeter layer of soil and remains in it for up to 10-14 years. The fungus enters the bush through the bark of the roots and spreads further through the vessels. The infected plant dies within one to two seasons. Signs of damage are yellowing, wilting and death of leaves at the base of the shoot. Shoots stop growing, turn blue, then turn black. The top withers, wilts and dies off.

Control measures: selection of resistant varieties, proper soil preparation, exclusion of tomatoes and potatoes from predecessors.

Botrytis, or gray rot

The disease is widespread, causes decay of inflorescences, berries and the death of shoots. It develops especially rapidly in wet weather. Rotten berries lose their taste and aroma, change color, then dry up. They are unsuitable not only for fresh use, but also for processing. Affected shoots crack, become covered with black fruiting bodies of the fungus, break and die.

Control measures: the same as with didimella.

Ulcerative spot

A particularly dangerous disease. Shoots become infected through pruning wounds, stems rubbing against trellis wire or thorns from adjacent shoots. Already two years later, after infection, dark brown spots appear on the shoots, which turn white by autumn. The buds above the infection site either do not form fruit twigs or wither before harvesting. If the infection occurred at the beginning of summer, then the shoot above the site of infection dies off.

Control measures: establishment of plantings with healthy material, use of protective measures recommended against didimella and anthracnose.

Root cancer, or goiter of the roots

The causative agent is rod-shaped bacteria that live in the soil and penetrate the root system through cracks and wounds in the roots. In the affected plants, lumpy growths of various sizes are formed on the roots, root collar and rhizome, first light, then brown. With severe damage, plant growth is weakened, the leaves turn yellow, the berries become smaller and lose their taste.

Control measures: laying plantings with healthy material, applying increased doses of organic fertilizers, planting after the best predecessors - cereals and legumes, which heal the soil from root cancer.

Viral and mycoplasma diseases

The causative agents of viral diseases (viruses) are the smallest protein compounds that do not have a cellular structure and can only multiply with living plant cells. Infection occurs when the juice of a diseased plant gets into a healthy one. Carriers of viruses are aphids, leafhoppers, ticks, nematodes, sometimes a tool for pruning plants and digging up soil. Mycoplasma organisms have a cellular structure and are transmitted mainly by leafhoppers, sometimes by nematodes and ticks.

The most dangerous are viral diseases - curliness (shoots thicken and shorten, leaves curl, berries dry up), chlorosis or jaundice (leaves turn yellow, shrivel, shoots thin and stretch in length, fruit twigs turn yellow, berries become smaller, deformed, lose their taste and dry out), mosaic (mosaic color of leaves with the appearance of convex areas and thinning of the leaf blade, thinning of shoots that lag behind in growth; berries become smaller, lose their taste, the affected bushes die over time).

Mycoplasma diseases include overgrowth, or "witch's broom" (the formation of bunches of 200-300 thin shoots with short stature, small chlorotic leaves, deformed flowers, on which the ovary does not form).

Control measures: use of healthy planting material of relatively resistant varieties, regular inspection of plantations with the removal and destruction of diseased plants, control of virus vectors, high level of agricultural technology. You should not plant new plants in the place of remote diseased bushes.

Also read:

Basic methods of dealing with diseases and pests of raspberries

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