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Video: Rules For Choosing And Planting Seedlings
And the garden will bloom in spring …
These acclimatized seedlings are grown by the nurseries of research and fruit growing farms located in the Leningrad Region. They are sold at two and three years of age with an already laid fibrous root system and the basis of a future crown. If you bought such a seedling, the main thing is to take it whole to your garden and plant it correctly.
When transporting, the most important thing is to preserve the roots of the seedling without drying them out. To do this, it is best to wrap them in a wet rag or paper and place them in a plastic bag. If the transportation does not take long, you can simply pack the roots in a plastic bag.
You can save the seedlings for a long time before planting by dipping its roots in liquid clay, and then wrapping it in a rag. Having slightly dried, the clay will protect the roots from drying out.
You can dig them in, laying them almost entirely, obliquely, into the groove with the tops to the north. This is usually done to preserve seedlings during winter storage, if you did not manage to plant them in the fall.
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For the best preservation of seedlings in the winter, a high and dry place is chosen on the site so that the water does not stagnate there either in autumn or in spring. For digging, a trench is prepared, placing the seedlings in it so that the roots are deeper than the aboveground part. The root part is sprinkled with sand and moistened with water.
After the first frosts hit, sprinkle with earth the stems and skeletal branches of the seedlings. As a result, a small earthen ridge is formed above the ditch, from one edge of which the ends of the branches peep out. From mice and other rodents, the branches are covered from above with spruce branches, and after the snow falls, if the winter is not very snowy, they throw more snow on top for warming.
In our strip, fruit trees are planted no later than the first decade of October, since by the end of the month the soil temperature drops below the temperature of root growth, and the seedlings simply do not have time to take root. In addition, after planting, the plant needs at least one to three weeks to recover from transportation and transplanting. Therefore, the seedlings bought in early October, it is better to dig in and leave until spring.
In order not to be mistaken with the choice of a seedling, you should know: the grafting site is located in the varietal tree just above the root collar. If you know this, then you won't get a wild one.
It is also important to remember that a plant with a thick, light-colored trunk on one side, which is given to you for a two-year-old, was actually brought from the south, and most likely it will not take root here. Therefore, I will not tire of repeating: it is better to go once to our nursery than to lose money and several years of my work.
In order to properly plant a seedling, you first need to prepare the ground. If it has a too acidic reaction (pH 4.5-5.0), it is neutralized - lime flour is added in an amount of 1-1.5 kg per 1 m2, while digging it is thoroughly mixed with the soil. Old cement or chalk can be used instead of lime.
Since the soil is usually limed in autumn, the last two options are preferable, because the introduction of lime is incompatible with the introduction of superphosphate, which is also better to bring under the autumn digging.
If the top layer of the soil is poor in humus, and the subsoil is heavy - it consists of clay or podzol, then it is useful to dig it with two bayonets of a garden shovel (about 50 cm) and enrich the entire treated layer with fertilizers.
This is done like this - the fertile top layer is removed on a shovel bayonet and folded in an even row. Next, the bottom layer is removed to make an even ditch, two shovel bayonets deep. Further, along the entire length of the ditch, the top layer is removed, and it is dropped into the ditch, the bottom layer is placed on top. Thus, the entire required area is dug up. Since the lower layer of the subsoil is usually poor in fertilizers, then all the dug soil must be thoroughly fertilized, using not only mineral, but also organic fertilizers.
Organic fertilizers are applied at least 10 kg per 1 m2, adding together with them 100 g of superphosphate and 20-30 g of potassium fertilizers.
More often, due to the economy of humus or compost, the soil is improved only in the planting pits. In principle, this is an acceptable solution, but if the soil on the entire site is poor, it is better to try and improve it entirely, at least gradually, from year to year.
Planting pits are prepared in advance and filled with an enriched soil mixture in such a way that it has time to settle before planting.
Saplings are planted in different ways - depending on the height of the groundwater in your area. Where the waters do not rise above 2-3 meters, holes are dug in the usual way, and the seedlings are planted so that the root collar is slightly above ground level. When the earth finally settles, the root collar will just be at the level of the soil. Do not confuse root collar with grafting!
In a swampy area, seedlings are planted on hills, with the obligatory bedding of broken bricks or coarse gravel under the soil (see fig.).
Planting a seedling on a site with a groundwater level:
A - deeper than 2 m;
B - from 1.5 to 2 m;
B - from 1 to 1.5 m.
On soils with a groundwater level from 1, 5 to 2 m from the surface, fruit trees are planted without a planting pit. At the planting site, the soil is dug onto two bayonets of a shovel with the introduction of organic and mineral fertilizers and a small hole is made so that the root system of the seedlings fits into it
For apple and pear grafted on vigorous rootstocks, holes are usually dug quite large: on poor, heavy soil - 1 to 2 m wide, 0.6-0.8 m deep, or even deeper when it is necessary to remove a clay layer that does not allow water and low permeability to roots. A layer of broken brick, crushed stone, crumpled cans, rusty iron is poured on the bottom of the pits - this creates drainage with a thickness of 8-10 cm.A soil enriched with manure, plant residues, mineral salts is placed on it - up to 15-20 cm.
Then they fill it with good humus soil with the addition of peat compost, ash, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. In total, up to 10 buckets of well-rotted manure are introduced under a tall apple or pear tree (it can be replaced with 5-7 buckets of good compost or 5-7 buckets of rich humus) along with 8-10 buckets of peat mixed with coarse sand; up to a kilogram of superphosphate and a bucket of ash. Make sure that when planting the roots of the seedling do not come into contact with mineral fertilizers.
Cherries and plums are planted in pits 0.8 m in diameter and 0.4 m deep. For both of these crops, good drainage of the soil and the absence of stagnant melt water in the places of their planting are very important. Up to 20 kg of manure, 4-5 buckets of humus or compost, 300-400 g of superphosphate and ash are added under plums, cherries, cherries.
The same amount of fertilizers is embedded in pits for chokeberry (chokeberry), sea buckthorn, irga, hawthorn.
On good soil, there is no need to make such large holes, nor do they make them for small trees, for example, grafted on semi-dwarf rootstocks. But the rest of the landing pattern itself always remains the same.
Sand is added to heavy, clayey soil - several buckets per hole, with increased acidity, lime flour, chalk or old cement are added.
The top layer of soil, more cultured and fertile, taken out of the pit, is laid separately, and then the pit is filled with it with the addition of fertilizers. The subsoil, which is comparatively less rich in nutrients, is folded separately. This part of the soil is then placed on top of the pit.
The subsoil layer can also be cultivated by introducing organic fertilizers and leavening agents such as sand or peat into it, but more often it is used for arranging sites, blind areas or paths.
The top layer of the soil, in which the roots of the seedlings will be located for the first time, is enriched mainly with humus, and a minimum amount of minerals, in addition to wood ash, is usually added so as not to burn the roots and not worsen the survival rate of the seedling.
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There is no need to dig deep holes under the sea buckthorn - it is enough to dig a hole to the depth of the bayonet of a garden shovel, since its roots grow horizontally and do not go deeper. Unlike other fruit trees, sea buckthorn roots appear higher and higher on the trunk, so every year you have to add 3-4 cm of sand, light earth, humus under it, and use mineral and organic fertilizers to a minimum. And the pits for it are filled with a light soil mixture - humus and peat with sand.
On sandy loam soils and light loams, in addition to other fertilizers for all crops, it is useful to add more well-decomposed peat and, in addition to macrofertilizers, it is imperative to add microelements.
To reduce the permeability of sandy soils, manure-earth composts with the addition of loam or clay are placed on the bottom of the pit.
If the pit was filled long before planting, for example, in the fall, and is to be planted in the spring, then the soil in it will partially settle by that time. Before planting, add some more good soil on top and knead it with your feet so that it eventually rises 5-7 cm above the soil surface.
This is done so that a hole does not form around the tree, in which water will stagnate in spring and autumn. The bark on the root collar and trunk suffers from excessive dampness, which can be the reason for a slow growing season.
When an apple tree or a pear has to be planted immediately or shortly after filling a large hole, a mound of at least 10-15 cm is made above the surface level. This is how much the soil freshly poured into the hole settles in two years. If this condition is not taken into account, after a while the trees will end up in deep holes, which does not have the best effect on their development and fruiting.
If the area allotted for planting fruit trees is located in a place where groundwater is very close to the earth's surface (1-1.5 m), then in such gardens it is necessary to "raise" the planting and plant the plants on artificially poured mounds, as we have already talked about, or on the ridges - quite high and large in area.
So, for example, mounds in highly swampy areas are made up to 3-3.5 m in diameter and up to 1 m high, and in some cases even higher. The hole is dug shallower or not at all, pouring drainage directly onto the soil surface. The thickness of the drainage in this case should not be less than 30-40 centimeters.
A stake is driven into the center of the mound, a seedling is loosely tied to it in two places with a "eight". Its roots are placed on the soil in such a way that the root collar is slightly higher than the surface of the future mound. The roots are gently straightened. Damaged, dry, diseased ends are cut off with pruning shears, and only after that the roots are sprinkled with soil. A small roller is made at a distance of half a meter from the trunk, forming a hole for watering.
In the fall, after planting and securing the seedling, the tops of the shoots are removed from it - by about a quarter or a third. This reduces evaporation of the bark while the tree has not yet taken root and the roots are still weak.
In varieties with a compressed or columnar crown, the outer bud is left on each shoot with the upper bud - its lateral growth will contribute to the expansion of the crown, and in varieties with a spreading crown, the inner one is left: it will grow upward, and the crown will form denser, slimmer.
To obtain stlanes, the ground is prepared just as thoroughly, but one-year olds are usually planted - it is easier to create a crown of the desired shape from them.
Planting is carried out in the fall from early September to mid-October, as well as in spring, in April, as soon as it becomes possible to cultivate the land, and the buds have not yet hatched. At the same time, vaccinations and re-grafting are carried out with interesting or rare varieties.
If you have planted the seedling correctly and provided it with proper care, then in 2-3 years you will remove and try your first harvest. Good luck to you!