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Greenhouse Complex In Znamenka
Greenhouse Complex In Znamenka

Video: Greenhouse Complex In Znamenka

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Lemons ripen in a greenhouse near St. Petersburg, bougainvillea blooms

grand ducal estate Znamenka
grand ducal estate Znamenka

On the outskirts of St. Petersburg, there are historical greenhouses that supplied exotic fruits to the tsar's New Year's table. On New Year's Eve, 2006, they, as usual, harvested an excellent harvest of citrus fruits.

The greenhouse complex as part of the Znamenka palace and park ensemble is a historical and cultural monument of federal significance.

The status obliges to preserve the heritage without prohibiting the use of it for its intended purpose. This is only good for Znamensky greenhouses.

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On the 24th kilometer of St. Petersburg highway, between Strelna and Peterhof, on the shores of the Gulf of Finland, there is a magnificent palace and park ensemble - the former grand ducal estate "Znamenka". Among its historical owners were Admiral Count N.F. Golovin, amulet master A.G. Razumovsky, senator P.V. Myatlev, wife of Nicholas I - Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich. After the revolution, the estate was nationalized.

Since 1924 it housed a children's colony, and since 1952 - the Fruit and Vegetable Institute. The greenhouses were used in the system of his educational economy. In 1968, by decision of the Leningrad City Executive Committee, the palace was transferred to Glavlenavtotrans (now Pasazhiravtotrans) as a recreation center for workers. At present, the Grand Duke's estate is still on the balance of motor transport workers, and it houses a boarding house.

The chapel is a notable landmark of "Znamenka" on the track. It was built in 1867 by N.L. Benois. A wide alley leads inland from the chapel, at the end of which you can see the Church of Peter and Paul. Not far from the temple, to the right of the road, is the Orangery complex. It was erected according to the project of G.E.Bosse in 1856-1858.

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Prominent specialists who have gone down in history were also involved in the planning of the park, the selection of varieties of trees and shrubs. These are garden masters: J. Bush, P. Erler, G. Betzich. Through their efforts, the seaside park "Znamenki" has become one of the best works of landscape architecture in Russia in the mid-19th century. Its composition is due to the originality of the coastal relief.

The lower garden, located on the north side of the palace, erected on the coastal ledge, is arranged on a slope. The upper garden extends from the southern facade of the palace to the highway. The landscape is dominated by deciduous trees: birch, willow, black and gray alder.

The greenhouse complex is "inscribed" in the square of the park's alleys, directed towards the highway and intersecting with transverse alleys. Under the historical owners of the estate, plants were grown in greenhouses to decorate the park, to preserve tub crops, which were exhibited in front of the palace for the summer. They cultivated heat-loving overseas fruits, in particular, pineapples, which were served to the New Year's table of the gentlemen. Heating in the greenhouses was stove. Now it is steam.

In the first months of the Great Patriotic War "Znamenka" was captured by the Nazis. Fights were fought on the territory of the estate, and the unique complex was destroyed. During the post-war reconstruction, the greenhouses acquired their original appearance. The area of ​​historical greenhouses is 1.5 thousand square meters.

Zoya Alekseevna Tikhomirova, an agronomist and horticultural scientist, is in charge of the greenhouse economy "Znamenka". She is extremely dedicated, creative person, excellent leader. I entered "Znamenka" almost 30 years ago as a plant protection agronomist with experience as a working flower factory. A university graduate acquired additional knowledge in flower beds.

pear in ornamental
pear in ornamental

With a meager team of employees, Zoya Alekseevna holds on her shoulders all the green economy of the boarding house. Greenhouses are helpful in supporting this arduous business. Ornamental deciduous plants are grown there to decorate palace interiors. The microclimate in it is not the most favorable for palms and other tropical sissies, and they often have to be updated.

Vacationers do not know what efforts are made to achieve beauty, which they never stop admiring. Plants are found in abundance throughout the year. Recently, after the renovation of the sauna, the flower growers have restored the winter garden by updating the collection. It grows fruiting feijoa, figs, grapes, pomegranate, laurel tree. Complements the exotic kiwi. They do not expect fruits from the liana - they appreciate it for its decorative effect.

In greenhouses they also grow their own flower seedlings for planting on flower beds - 35 thousand annuals each. Now, in the midst of winter, greens - parsley and celery - are thrown out here for the guests. Cucumbers and tomatoes are grown in summer. Its fresh tomatoes here ran out before the New Year. Zoya Alekseevna said that they themselves bred a variety of tall tomatoes with fleshy fruits and for many years cultivated only it. Seeds for selection were taken from tomatoes at a vegetable warehouse, where, even under Soviet rule, the collective was sent to sort vegetables. Vegetable base tomatoes were crossed with their own, the result was a new variety.

Zoya Alekseevna is also experimenting with amaryllis. These are some of her favorite colors. It took five years to get a new version of the flower. The agronomist's patience is rewarded with exclusive varieties. Among them are white and pink with red strokes and green hearts.

You can always find something interesting in greenhouses. At the end of December, bougainvillea bloomed there with delicate pink flowers. Its tiny offshoot was brought from Egypt. The plant took root, became a bush. The euharius was surrounded by increased attention. Its only specimen bloomed with snow-white flowers. Agave and Cyperus, rhododendrons and azaleas have already become familiar here …

And yet, in my observation, with all the variety of exotic and unique species, lemons and tangerines remain the favorite of greenhouses. I have not met them more fragrant and tastier. The hostess found it difficult to name the variety of tangerines, and the lemons were definitely Pavlovsky. Both those and others brought from the south small plants in pots. It was about 20 years ago. Zoya Alekseevna dropped them off in the greenhouse, for which the director chided her: you occupy the land with self-indulgence …

The plants were propagated by cuttings, the citrus garden grew and became not only a source of fruits, but also a landmark of Znamenka. During excursions around the estate, vacationers willingly visit the greenhouse - everyone wants to see real lemons with tangerines ripening near St. Petersburg.

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