Table of contents:
Video: Growing And Varieties Of Remontant Raspberries In The North-west Of Russia
Features of growing remontant raspberries in the North-West of Russia
In his article on new remontant raspberry varieties with a repeated fruiting cycle on annual shoots, bred by the famous breeder I.V. Kazakov for the conditions of the Central Black Earth, North Caucasian and more southern regions ("Flora Price" No. 1 (72)), I noted that the Babie Leto variety (which was one of the first to be obtained) was also assigned to this group.
However, as my observations during the cultivation of this variety on a summer cottage and the experience of the Pushkin nursery of the Scientific and Production Center Agrotechnology show, in the conditions of the North-West region with an insufficiently warm and frost-free autumn period, the zone of remontant fruiting on annual shoots in this variety is noticeably reduced (up to 30% the length of the shoot), and the ripening of berries is delayed, which sharply reduces the autumn harvest. And only in the years with a warm, protracted autumn, which were recently observed in the Leningrad region (2000, 2003, 2005), about 1 / 4-1 / 3 of the apical part of the annual shoots ripened large, clean, sweet berries.
The fruiting top of the shoot dries up, and on the remaining two-year-old stem the next year a summer harvest is formed, as in the case of ordinary varieties.
In years with warm autumn, on the tops of annual shoots, the crop is also formed on such varieties that are partially remontant in the conditions of the North-West, such as Firebird, Zhuravlik, Progress, Sentyabrskaya and some others.
Varieties of this type, and especially the variety Babie Leto, under our conditions should be grown with an orientation towards obtaining two harvests: the main summer and additional autumn on the upper part of the annual shoots. In this case, it is not necessary to cut off the aerial part of the plants of annual shoots for the winter, and in early spring only the fruiting top should be removed. The remaining two-year-old part of the stem bears fruit in summer.
In the warmer regions of central Russia, from each bush of the Babe Leto variety grown in this way, 2.5-2.8 kg of autumn harvest berries and 2-2.5 kg of summer harvest are obtained. Thus, the total yield can reach 4.5-5 kg per bush.
However, in the North-West region of Russia, an attempt to remove "two skins from one sheep" succeeds only in years with a warm, prolonged autumn, and, of course, the indicators of summer and autumn yield are different. In addition, it sometimes happens that the harvest does not have time to ripen in the fall, and the upper part of the shoot freezes up, since due to the formation of the ovary, the shoot is not prepared for overwintering.
Nevertheless, many gardeners grow the Indian Leto variety in order to get at least 1.0-1.5 kg from a bush of large, non-wormy berries in the fall, in September-October, since during this period they are not affected by the raspberry beetle, because the phases of development of the raspberry beetle and the formation of autumn berries do not coincide.
In areas with insufficiently warm autumn for a more complete maturation of the autumn harvest, it is advisable to normalize the ovaries in the upper part of the shoot, where small berries are formed, and parts of the inflorescences even dry out. On this part of the shoot, normalization of the generative organs should be carried out, after pinching the growing branch when the first inflorescence is formed, then, as it appears, you need to break off 5-7 upper weak branches, leaving 8-10 lower, stronger branches for fruiting. Such normalization contributes to the rapid development of the remaining fruit branches, their timely and friendly flowering, accelerates ripening and increases the mass of berries. At the same time, the total yield does not decrease, and practically the berries have time to ripen before the first frost.
In addition, to accelerate the ripening of the autumn harvest, you can use the simplest portable film shelters. Some of the tops of shoots with unripe berries can be cut off and kept in a room in a vessel with water until ripening, or ovaries, buds and flowers can be used as medicinal preparations, after drying them.
For gardeners who want to combine the production of autumn berries of the Babier Leto variety and planting material of this variety, we can recommend the experience of broadband growing of plants with the subsequent use of annual shoots that bear fruit in the fall as planting material.
In this case, the plantation is placed on well-fertilized and weed-free soil. Plants are planted with a double-line tape with distances of 0.5 m between plants in a row and 0.5-0.7 m between lines.
By the fall of the first year, 1-2 well-developed shoots with a fruiting top are formed from the rhizome of each seedling. After harvesting, the top is cut off, shoots are dug up with a shovel with a small volume of roots and used as sedimentary material.
In the spring of the following year, numerous root suckers grow from the roots remaining in the soil, filling the entire strip, 0.7-1.0 m wide.
During the summer, they are rationed, leaving 15-18 of the strongest shoots per 1 m of strips, they will give a harvest in the fall under favorable conditions, after harvesting all the seedlings are dug up and used for planting or sale.
Then the site is cleaned of debris, organic and mineral fertilizers are applied superficially, they are embedded in the soil to a depth of 4-5 cm. By the fall of next year, berries and planting material are harvested again. Thus, plantings can be used for 5-6 years, provided they are well cared for.
The technology of growing remontant varieties with both a two-year (Babe Leto) and a one-season cycle of growth and fruiting has some peculiarities in contrast to the generally accepted technology.
First of all, this concerns the careful choice of a place both in the production area and in the personal plot. A sunny, well-lit place is a prerequisite for success. This greatly affects the timing of the beginning of flowering: in shading, flowering occurs later, and the plants do not show their full potential, sharply reduce the remontant zone, delay the beginning of ripening of berries or do not form a crop at all.
The best soils for remontant varieties are well-fertilized medium and light loams with a neutral or slightly acidic pH 6-7 reaction.
It is desirable to prepare the soil in a pre-planting rotation, alternating between clean fallow and busy green manure fallow, i.e. one year the land is not occupied with anything, but organic fertilizer is applied and loosened, destroying weeds. In the second year, crops are sown that help get rid of weeds, but do not reduce soil fertility. In the third year, siderates are sown and embedded in the soil. In all other respects, the soil is prepared as on a regular raspberry plantation.
Low-fertile soils are improved by the annual application of increased doses of organic fertilizers for autumn digging (10-15 kg / m2). Excessively moist areas are drained by drainage or open ditches.
In the northern part of the Non-Chernozem zone and in the North-West, with a close standing of groundwater and the impossibility of draining them, you can plant raspberries on ridges, planting plants in furrows, the bottom of which should be laid out with various organic materials that give humus (wood chips, chopped brushwood, reeds, reeds, etc. etc.)
Average fertile soils are annually filled with fertilizers per 1 m2: 5-6 kg of organic fertilizers, 25-30 g of superphosphate, 15-20 g of potassium salt.
Taking into account the increased need of remontant varieties for nutrients and the impossibility of filling the entire area well, it is advisable to apply fertilizers into the trench.
To do this, in the direction of the future row, they dig a trench 0.5-0.6 m deep, at the bottom of which organic and mineral fertilizers are applied per 1 m2 of its length: two buckets of humus or compost and one glass of superphosphate and potassium sulfate. It is better to replace mineral fertilizers with one liter can of ash. Fertilizers are mixed with the top layer of soil and dumped into a trench - this is the first layer. Then the bottom layer of earth is poured, mixed with fertilizers - the second layer. The trench is lightly tamped so that all the soil fits in it.
A similar method of pre-planting soil filling can be used when planting seedlings in pits, introducing into each of them a half dose of fertilizer recommended for 1 m of the trench.
Plants can be placed during planting in several ways:
- single-row, with a distance between plants of 0.5 m, between rows on a personal plot - at least 1.2 m;
- tape, in 2-3 lines with a distance between plants of 0.5 m, between lines - 0.6-0.9 m, between tapes - 1.5-1.8 m;
- bush, separate bushes every 0.7 m;
- arbitrary, placing plants in the sunniest and warmest places;
- square-bush, plants are placed on the sides 1-1.5 m, planting 1 plant in each corner.
There are other placement methods used depending on soil and climatic conditions, varietal characteristics, the possibility of using film shelters and other factors.
The formation of plantings is carried out as follows: in the first year after planting, depending on the variety and planting material, 1-3 replacement shoots are formed. With a shoot height of 10-15 cm, the old aerial part of the seedling is cut off and burned. This technique promotes better development of young shoots and reduces the level of fungal infection.
After harvesting the autumn harvest on varieties with a single fruiting, the aerial part of the plants is completely removed. It is better to carry out this work with the onset of persistent late autumn frosts and when the soil freezes, since up to this time there is an active outflow of nutrients from the stem to the root system of plants. Shoots are cut at the very base of the soil, leaving no stumps. From the second year after planting, with the beginning of the growing season, the normalization of root suckers begins, leaving 5-15 strong shoots on each running meter.
In the future, the growing root suckers to be removed are used as planting material, digging them out in the "nettles" phase with a lump of earth and planted in a prepared place.
With the bush growing method, the bush is formed from 3-6 replacement shoots, depending on the degree of branching of the variety.
Varieties with strong branching (Indian Summer) with a two-year fruiting cycle are preferable to plant sparsely and then leave only two replacement shoots in each bush every year (they get an autumn harvest) and two shortened last year's stems that bear fruit in summer.
It is important for the cultivation of remontant varieties to mulch the soil with a dark film, non-woven materials and other mulching agents, which reduce heat loss by the soil by about 15%, which is very significant for remontant varieties, since they, as a rule, are in short supply in the North-West. heat. You can also use a light film, covering it with peat or soil on top with a layer of 2-3 cm.
The soil between the rows and the free area between the bushes can be sown with grasses, if there is no film there. Grass is sown before planting raspberries, or simultaneously with planting, or after rooting of seedlings. The grass is cut periodically, leaving the cut in place. Fertilizers are applied throughout the entire area within the recommended agrotechnical terms.
Raspberry berries of the autumn harvest are distinguished by their purity (non-worm), large mass, high density and stay on the bush for a relatively long time after ripening (do not rot).
Therefore, harvesting can be done in 5-7 days. They finish harvesting berries at the onset of frost -4-6оС.
Growing remontant varieties of raspberries together with summer varieties allows you to extend the consumption of fresh berries up to 5 months, and when used for off-season forcing, the conveyor of fresh berries can operate almost all year round.
The benefit of obtaining an environmentally friendly autumn harvest lies in the fact that prices for berries in the off-season are higher than in summer.
Meanwhile, some negative aspects are not excluded when growing remontant raspberry varieties with one-season fruiting. Annual shoots are affected by spider mites, raspberry mites, shoot gall midge, and purple spot. In this case, in order not to risk the harvest, plantings should be laid with healthy planting material.
In addition, the absence of the aboveground part of the plants on the plantation in winter can affect the freezing of the soil, so gardeners should take care of the root system, covering it for good snow retention.
Popular by topic
Thinning of plants as an effective agricultural technique to create favorable conditions for their growth, development and fruiting is also necessary for vegetable crops
The Timing Of Planting Seeds And Seedlings Of Vegetables, The Choice Of Fertilizing For Vegetables, The Right Compost
Alas, not only beginners, but also experienced gardeners often make mistakes that lead to irreparable consequences. And instead of a huge harvest of delicious vegetables and spicy herbs, in this case, they are often disappointed. Let's try to consider the most common violations of agricultural technology, leading to adverse consequences
To determine the germination rate, gardeners usually pack a damp cloth with seeds in a plastic bag, put it in a warm place and wait for the seeds to hatch. And they are satisfied with the very fact of pecking seeds. And in vain
I had a dream: to create a decorative vegetable garden on my site, on which vegetables, and spicy herbs, and salads and flowers would grow. But my husband did not take this venture seriously, considering it another whim. But this year a miracle happened: my husband gave me a ridge on which watermelons grew last year. I was happy to have the opportunity to realize my project, which had been nurtured for three years. And so I started to implement it. I really wanted this idea to give results
Sorting, dressing, heating, soaking and stimulating growth, bubbling, pelleting, germination and vernalization of seeds