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Video: Growing Blackberries - Forming Bushes And Feeding Blackberries - Growing Blackberries In The Garden - 2
Features of the cultivation and formation of bushes, a culture that is still rare in our gardens
After a good pre-planting soil preparation, fertilizers are applied after 2-3 years, limiting themselves only to nitrogen fertilization in spring at the rate of 20-25 g of ammonium nitrate or 10-15 g of urea per 1m2. In the future, on soils with medium nutrient supply, annually apply to one fruiting bush up to 6-8 kg of humus or compost, 50-60 g of ammonium nitrate, 90-100 g of superphosphate and 25-30 g of potassium fertilizers, preferably chlorine-free.
When growing erect blackberries, various trellises are used, which are also used for raspberries. When growing such blackberries without a spaler, a strong shortening of the stems is possible, which is recommended for black raspberries. As a result, the overall yield of berries decreases, but their weight increases and the quality improves.
A fan-shaped method of forming a bush of both creeping and erect blackberries is possible, in which fruiting and growing stems are placed separately (Fig. 1). The proposed formation increases the distance between plants to 3-3.5 m. In the first year after planting blackberries, young shoots are tied to a trellis, directing them obliquely to one side. In the summer of the second year, such stems will bear fruit. New shoots, as they grow, are tied up on a trellis in the opposite direction to last year.
The system of growing and forming a bush in creeping blackberries is somewhat more complicated. The most winter-hardy of them are suitable for creating impassable hedges in the garden along the fences, although the yields from such plantings are small due to the impossibility of normal plant care.
Formation of erect blackberry varieties
To obtain a full-fledged crop of creeping varieties, they need a trellis on a wire basis or from ordinary poles. A trellis is made of 3-4 wires with intervals of 30-50 cm between them.
Already in the summer, in the year of planting, 2-3 young stems are formed from the rhizome, which, during the growing season, as they grow, fan-shaped trellis are tied to the wires and braided along the three lower wires (Fig.2a). When premature lateral shoots 30-40 cm long are formed on these lashes, they are shortened, leaving no more than 4-5 buds. In summer, new stems are formed through the center of the bush, guiding them along the top row of the wire (Fig. 2b). Fruiting occurs on last year's stems. After fruiting, remove all fruiting stems (Fig. 2c). At this time, the stems of the current year are untied and braided along the three free lower rows of wire (Fig. 2d). At the end of the growing season, the weak tops of young shoots are cut off.
Other ways of forming bushes of creeping blackberries are also possible, one of which is the vertical formation of fruiting stems, used for more intensive use of the land area. At the same time, the distance between plants in a row is set to 1.5 m, which makes it possible to double the number of plants in the area against the usual.
Formation of creeping blackberry varieties
In each bush, 6-8 fruiting stems are left, which are placed fan-shaped along the trellis, but almost vertically and close enough to one another. In early spring, the stems are cut at a height of 1.5-1.7 m. Young shoots appearing during the growing season are also temporarily placed fan-shaped to the right and left of the fruiting stems; in the spring of next year, the best of them are tied vertically to a wire for fruiting. With the vertical formation of the bush, it is useful to pluck out several lower buds, since the berries on the fruit branches that have developed from them usually lie on the ground and are heavily contaminated.
The next way to form bushes of creeping blackberries is to evenly place fruiting stems on both sides of the trellis, wrapping them around the three lower wires. New shoots are sent up through the center of the bush and further distributed to the right and left along the upper wire. After fruiting, two-year-old stems are cut out at the base, young shoots are removed from the trellis at the onset of autumn frosts and covered for the winter. In early spring, after proper pruning, this year's fruiting shoots are braided around the bottom three wires, again leaving the top wire free to accommodate the young shoots.
With any method of formation, especially in areas of covering culture, care should be taken to insulate annual stems for the winter, for which in late autumn they are removed from the trellis, laid on the ground and covered with any mulching material. In the spring, it is necessary to open the bushes until the buds swell and carry out a formative pruning.
Blackberries are harvested gradually as the berries ripen. The picker should have two hands free to reach the berries without being damaged by thorns. For this, the basket is hung on a belt. The berries are removed along with the fruit.