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Video: Soil Content In The Orchard
Steam, steam side, sod-humus systems and sodding
Recently, many gardeners are starting to stick to organic farming systems. It should be noted that its popularity and prospects are explained, first of all, by the environmental friendliness of the methods and fertilizers used, and, accordingly, the products.
In addition, if all recommendations are followed, the yield increases significantly over time. This allows you to get the same yields from a smaller area.
The freed up areas can be occupied by trees and flowers. In general, a significant part of the vegetable garden can be turned into a garden.
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Some gardeners will want to plant more flowers, others will want trees. It is also possible to plant flowers under the trees. However, I want to warn you that you should not plant large perennials with a highly developed root system under trees. You can plant in sufficient light stonecrops, muscari, crocuses, daffodils, tulips and others, in the shade - aquilegia, periwinkle, irises and some other plants. It should be noted that gardeners have such a concept as a trunk circle. It implies the area of nutrition of the tree and depends on its age. In addition, circular grooves with a depth of 25-30 cm are made along the periphery of the crown for fertilizing. In the first two years, the diameter of the near-trunk circle is 2 m, for the 3rd and 4th years - 2.5 m, for the 5th and 6th - 3 m.
For the first 4-5 years, tree trunks cannot be planted even in strong trees. In trees on low-growing rootstocks, these circles (in large gardens - stripes) should not be planted with anything at all.
And the content of the soil in the garden should be understood, first of all, the content of the row spacings. By the way, the row spacing and the distance between trees in a row should depend on the type of variety and stock. So, vigorous varieties of apple trees on seed stocks are recommended to be placed according to a 4x6 m scheme, the same varieties on inserts - according to a 3x5 m scheme, the same varieties on clonal stocks - according to a 2.5x4 m scheme.Those gardeners and farmers who want a part of their plot make it an orchard, I suggest that you familiarize yourself with the possible options for soil content.
Currently in Russia there are four systems of soil maintenance in an orchard: steam, steam-sided, sod-humus and cultural turf (tinning). I will dwell on the essence, advantages and disadvantages of each.
Steam soil maintenance system
Its essence lies in regular mechanical tillage. In industrial conditions, this is autumn plowing followed by spring harrowing and cultivation. For plots measured in hundreds, this is digging with a shovel, harrowing with a rake, loosening with a flat cutter.
- Preservation of moisture in the soil.
- Weed control.
- Regulation of thermal conditions.
- Destruction of the structure and physical properties of the soil.
- Decrease in humus reserves due to its enhanced oxidation by autochthonous microflora.
- A plow sole is created that does not allow the spread of the root system.
- Soil erosion is increasing.
The peculiarity of this system is that from the beginning of the season until about mid-summer, the soil "steams", and in the second half of the summer, every second row-spacing is sown with green manure.
- Large masses of organic matter accumulate, which is better used by fruit trees than manure.
- The number of water-resistant aggregates increases, the soil is loosened by roots to a considerable depth, that is, the soil is structured.
- Green manures left for the winter insulate the soil.
- Siderates, by sucking off excess water, contribute to the end of the growing season of the main crop and better ripening of wood, which means its better overwintering. It is of particular importance in regions with excessive rainfall.
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Under this system, most of the garden area is occupied by natural grass or seeded perennial grasses.
- The structure is quickly restored. - Deep penetration of the roots occurs, after the death of which a capillary structure is created, due to which friability, porosity, water permeability, moisture capacity and aeration increase.
- The number of earthworms is increasing.
- Decreases overheating.
- The level of ground water decreases.
- The bark on the boles is not damaged.
- Erosion control is in progress.
- The soil dries up.
- There is a nitrogen deficiency.
It is a type of turfing (tinning). This implies sowing grasses in the aisles of the garden. As the herbage grows by 10-12 cm, it is mowed in place and left in the form of mulch. Frequent mowing inhibits the growth of the root systems of grasses, making them less competitive with trees for moisture and nutrition. A layer of mulch helps to retain moisture, but it is still recommended to carry out irrigation by sprinkling, which, firstly, provides moisture to the fruit crop, and secondly, it promotes mulch overheating.
If the herbage is purely cereal by species composition, it is advisable to feed it with nitrogen fertilizer at the rate of 60-90 kg / ha (6-9 g / m2). This corresponds to 1.5-2 c / ha or 15-20 g / m2 of ammonium nitrate. When using microbiological fertilizers, the dose of mineral nitrogen can be reduced by 20-25%. In addition, the need for nitrogen can be at least partially satisfied by introducing clover into the grass stand. For example, sow a mixture of ryegrass, clover and fescue. This system is most effective when there is an organized water supply to the main crop.
From the point of view of the rationality of the methods, the steam system best of all ensures the fight against pests, diseases and weeds, but then the increase in soil fertility is possible only through the introduction of manure or peat-manure compost and mineral fertilizers, which is quite costly. In this case, the soil loses its structure, as a result of which it floats (causing the roots to choke) and erodes.
The goals of a significant increase in soil fertility by increasing the content of humus and improving their structure are answered by tinning, sod-humus and steam-side systems. The combination of these systems is quite promising. For example, a system has proven itself well, in which the main part of the area is tinned, while the near-trunk strips or circles are not sown, but mulched with cut grass.
When choosing a system, it is necessary, on the one hand, to take into account the weather and climatic conditions of the region, and on the other, to decide for yourself which is more important: the beauty of the garden or the yield.