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Video: Treating Gardens Against Pests
Well, moth, wait
How wonderful our gardens have bloomed today! Will we get the harvest we want in the fall? And this will largely depend on us - how we will take care of fruit trees and shrubs, how we will deal with numerous pests.
First and second garden treatments
Usually, four treatments are done in the garden per season. The first, even before the start of sap flow, is a concentrated solution of any mineral fertilizer. If you did not do it in early spring and did not destroy the clutch of pests, and there were many pests in the previous summer, then a second treatment of the garden will be required in a very short period from the beginning of the swelling of the buds and their opening to the extension of the buds.
It is often recommended to use one of the following drugs: Inta-vir, Decis, Karate, Fury, karbofos or its analogue Fufanon, as well as other drugs. The first four drugs belong to the same group, they are highly toxic, therefore they are very effective, but at the same time they destroy beneficial insects, bees and earthworms, since it will take about three weeks for their decomposition, and during this time beneficial insects will come out of their shelters and die from exposure to pesticide residues. And they absolutely cannot be used from the moment of flowering, not only of the garden, but also of the mother-and-stepmother, since at this time bumblebees appear and worms crawl out.
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Karbofos and Fufanon are preferable to these drugs primarily because both of them decompose quickly, within 5-7 days, even before the appearance of beneficial insects, but are less effective, therefore, with a large number of pests, they should not be used. Besides, as already mentioned, they pollute our environment ten times more.
I emphasize again: the above chemical poisons can be used in the garden only before flowering! But at the same time you destroy not only pests, but also your own liver
All of these drugs kill pests, getting into their intestines along with food and causing poisoning. Therefore, it makes no sense to use them for spraying egg-laying or pest pupae. Part of the pests will begin to feed at the moment the buds open (green cone), while the other will begin at the time of budding (separation and extension of the buds). It is at these moments that we must have time to process the garden with them. Look especially at garden strawberries. Even before the separation of the buds, until the weevil leaves the wintering places (and it comes out of the soil when it warms up to 8 degrees Celsius), each bush should be sprayed with Fitoverm. What can replace Fitoverm? Iskra-bio or Akarin (Agravertin).
Since at this time there are already early green crops, then when treating the garden with non-biological preparations, the beds with greens must be covered with a film, otherwise you can poison yourself with poisons.
Instead of these chemicals, you can use the same mineral fertilizers that were used for treatment in late March - early April (nitroammofosk, azofosk, urea, etc., or just table salt), but only their concentration should be 7-10 times lower, otherwise can cause severe burns to erect buds and buds. It is possible to recommend spraying on a green cone with a 0.7% urea solution, that is, dissolve 70 g (3 tablespoons) of urea in 10 liters of water. But this is in case you don't have Fitoverm or Iskra-bio at hand.
Here it is necessary to say the following. The roots of plants awaken when the soil in their zone of occurrence warms up to 8 degrees Celsius, and the leaves begin their work as soon as they unfold. It only takes 20 seconds for the photosynthesis process to begin in the unfolded leaf. As a rule, the roots at this time have not yet begun their work of delivering the soil solution up to the leaves, but supply the roots with the entire range of minerals for protein formation. If they are absent, then the protein in the nuclei of chlorophyll is not formed. But carbohydrates are just formed, because for this, only solar energy, carbon dioxide and water are enough. Plants take carbon dioxide from the air, and water from their own reserves. The resulting carbohydrates must go down to the roots - they are the providers of energy for the work and growth of the roots, but they sleep and do not need this energy.An excess of carbohydrates is formed in plants. But pests prefer carbohydrates. At the moment the leaves unfold, they all fly to feast on young foliage and its juice. The cold soils of the Northwest are especially conducive to this.
How to be? Of course, you can warm the soil, for example, by covering it in early spring with a black film or spunbond, or pouring hot water around the perimeter of the crown of trees and shrubs (frankly speaking, it's still a job). But you really can't follow such advice as trampling snow under the trees or covering the tree trunks with sawdust in order to delay the awakening of plants, so as not to fall under the spring frost.
The fact is that in this way we will only delay the awakening of the roots, and this is just very bad for the plant. At the same time, photosynthesis will not be stopped, since the unfolding of the leaves is associated not with the soil temperature, but with the air temperature, and it warms up earlier than the soil, regardless of whether you trampled snow or not. Here are the leaves and will drive carbohydrates, calling pests from all over the area to a feast. The easiest way to deal with this problem is to give the leaves everything they need to make protein, that is, to work instead of the roots. How? It's very simple: give foliar dressing by spraying the leaves with any mineral fertilizer. The most suitable remedy would be Uniflor-growth (2 teaspoons per 10 liters of water), because it contains a full set of macro- and microelements, and in a chelated form,which will allow plants to use them in the first minutes after absorption.
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What can replace Uniflor-growth? You can use Uniflor-Bud, Tsitavit, Aquadon-micro, Florist, Omu, a weak solution of Kemira-Lux, Solution, Lignohumate, Extrasol or whatever is at your fingertips. Do not forget that feeding on the leaves is done with a fertilizer solution 10 times weaker than under the roots, otherwise you will burn your plants at the root. If at the same time you add a solution of the Healthy Garden and Ecoberin to the top dressing, then you will protect your garden from pests, diseases and the vagaries of the weather.
What can replace these homeopathic remedies? Zircon along with Epin-extra. Take 2 drops of each of them in 1 liter of water. If you add 4 drops of Cytovit to the solution, then everything will be in perfect order. You can dissolve all three capsules in 10 liters of water. Uniflor-bud, Florist, Aquadon-micro should be taken at the rate of 2 teaspoons per 10 liters of water, and all other fertilizers should be taken in a tablespoon (no top) per 10 liters of water.
It must be remembered that during the mass flowering of cherries, the years of a glass butterfly damaging black currants are going on, so you need to spray the bushes with any plant solution with a strong odor or with the Healthy Garden preparation. In addition, at this time, the spring summer of vegetable pests also passes, but this will be a special conversation.
Third garden treatment
This is the treatment of plants at the time of the beginning of the growth of young ovaries, on which many pests lay their eggs: the moth and apple sawfly on the ovary of apple trees, sawflies and moths on currants and gooseberries. From that time on, spraying over the ovaries, and then over the fruits of apple trees against the moth will have to be carried out every two weeks, since its butterflies fly all summer.
You can use only herbal preparations (tops of tomatoes and potatoes, dandelion, tansy, yarrow, wormwood, burdock, horse sorrel). At this time, using chemicals is simply dangerous. To prepare an infusion of any of these plants, you need to take 400-500 g of chopped greens, pour 10 liters of water, cover, leave for 3-4 hours, strain and spray immediately. Herbal infusions are not made for future use. A drug of such a weak concentration serves only to disorient the pests; for their death, a more concentrated infusion is required: 1 kg of chopped greens per 10 liters of water should be insisted for a day under a lid. But you must understand that a solution of such a high concentration is already poisonous, and take the same safety measures when spraying as when using chemicals: protect your face and hands from getting the solution on them,if this happens, immediately wash off the product with water, do not spray in windy weather.
Many garden pests fly during the mass flowering of raspberries in mid-June. These are currant kidney moth damaging red currants, gall midge damaging black currants, raspberry stem gall midge, raspberry beetle. At the same moment, the strawberry-raspberry weevil passes from strawberry to raspberry. It is necessary to systematically shake off weevils and raspberry beetles early in the morning, while the insects are inactive, on the litter and destroy them. Disorienting spraying with herbal infusions or planting odorous plants and flowers among berry bushes and fruit trees help well. There is an old and, by the way, very effective old-fashioned method. In early June, a shovel of fresh manure should be thrown into the middle of the bush. Pests do not touch such a bush. In addition, the dung miasms suppress the spheroteca (American powdery mildew) spores.
At the same time, carefully examine the gooseberry and currant bushes: if prematurely ripened berries appear, collect and destroy them - they contain sawfly and gooseberry moth larvae. If this moment is missed, each larva, moving from one ovary to another, will destroy 6-7 gooseberries or 12-15 currants, and then the larvae will go to winter in the soil under the bushes and become inaccessible for destruction.
At the beginning of summer, make sure that the gooseberry moth caterpillars do not eat gooseberry and red currant leaves. If you miss them, be sure to pay attention to the bushes in the middle of summer: spider cocoons with moth and moth pupae appear on them. They are clearly visible. They must be collected and destroyed, thereby protecting the harvest of next year. Otherwise, they will fall with the leaves on the soil and overwinter under the bushes, and in early spring butterflies will fly out of the pupae and lay eggs: the moth on the underside of the leaves, and the moth directly into the flowers of currants and gooseberries. The easiest way to destroy a moth is to spud the gooseberry bushes to a height of 10-12 cm in the fall, and uncook it in early spring. The pupae wintering under the bush will die.
Fourth garden treatment
This is an autumn spraying at the end of the growing season (late October-early November) directly on unopened foliage. The foliage should be "poisoned" with a mineral fertilizer in order to force it to give the plant all the nutrition that has been accumulated in it over the summer, to die off and fall off. Especially carefully spray the ends of young branches on which aphids have laid eggs, forks of branches and near-stem circles on fallen leaves. In this case, you do not need to remove the leaves from under the bushes and trees. Spraying is best done with a concentrated solution of mineral fertilizers, as in early spring.