Table of contents:
- The scheme of a hill-bed for fruit and berry crops:
- In addition to what has already been said, the following tips are also appropriate:
Video: Creation Of Beds-hills On Problem Land For Fruit And Berry Crops
The scheme of a hill-bed for fruit and berry crops:
1 - lumpy old film;
2 - plastic container with sod;
3 - lumpy organic waste;
4 - enclosing sod walls;
5 - fertile soil;
6 - organic mulch;
7 - seedling with support.
It is no secret that the majority of summer residents and gardeners got and are getting today mostly waste lands (peat-bog, clay, etc.), characterized by a high level of groundwater. Developing and cultivating such lands for planting fruit trees and berry bushes, many land owners spend a lot of physical labor and considerable financial resources, and not always justified and bringing success.
If we analyze the existing experience, then most often three mistakes are made when preparing such heavy soils for a garden.
First, drainage of the soil is carried out by laying appropriate drainage ditches along the edges of the site. However, this mainly improves only the air regime, but the low thermal conductivity of the soil is not eliminated, which is why it thaws slowly, warms up poorly and requires the introduction of large doses of loosening, mineral and organic materials.
Secondly, instead of the indicated drainage of the site, it is practiced to cover the problem land for its drainage with sheet materials (roofing felt, tar paper, film, etc.), followed by backfilling with imported field soil in a volume of up to 100 kg / m. In this case, I know this from my own experience, the roots of trees and bushes, having reached the drainage, often underpin and die from the accumulated moisture, and there is no confidence in the good quality of the imported land.
Thirdly, in the problem area for planting trees and shrubs, embankments are arranged, and due to the shortage and high cost of manure, a mixture of peat and imported field land is used. In this case, as it was established, in the thickness of the mixture in winter, foci of permafrost are formed, as a result of which the growing season is often delayed in spring, although trees and bushes bloom, but rarely yield crops.
Considering everything that was discussed above, and taking into account the urgent need for the integrated use of all waste inevitably generated on the site, I managed to overcome such mistakes by creating beds-hills on the problem land (see figure).
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The lowest layer of such beds consists of plastic containers (bottles, cans, boxes, etc.), the next one consists of pieces of turf, and the uppermost layer consists of various organic waste, laid in this order: wood (chopped branches, branches and rhizomes, chips, etc.), cardboard (in the form of scraps and lumps) and vegetable (grass, tops, foliage, etc.).
After that, we spilled the entire pillow made of such organic matter either with a solution of feces or a solution of green slurry, sprinkled with fluffy lime, and on top, with a layer of about 25 cm, covered the nutrient soil, consisting of compost, garden soil, sand, ash and mineral fertilizers in the ratio, taking into account the requirements of a particular garden culture.
Time has shown that the lower plastic layer does not compact, it is an excellent drainage and even after the spring flooding contains moist air, which enhances the decomposition of the overlying organic matter. Through it, it positively affects the development of the root system of trees and shrubs. At the same time, being in depth, this layer never freezes, but, on the contrary, heats up the organic matter, stimulating and lengthening the time of its decomposition.
Due to this, the growing season, flowering and ripening of fruits begins on the hill-bed about two weeks earlier, and for the same period earlier trees and bushes go into relative dormancy and winter better. It is also important that, waking up earlier than pests, trees and bushes are much less likely to be damaged by them.
In addition to what has already been said, the following tips are also appropriate:
- if there are drainage ditches near the site for a hill-bed, it is advisable to make a trench with its output to a common drainage system, and if not, dig a hole;
- when choosing the height of the hillside bed, one should proceed from the maximum level of groundwater, not allowing it to be higher than the level of laying the plastic layer of waste;
- the width of the trench or hole for the garden bed must be selected based on the type of soil and the trees and bushes planned for planting in accordance with the requirements known from the literature;
- when digging a trench or a hole for a hill-bed, you need to strive to ensure that its northern side is vertical, and its southern side is gentle to improve solar heating of the soil;
- when caring for a hill-bed, you do not need to dig it, but just loosen it with a pitchfork in early spring.
In conclusion, I would like to note that practically no financial costs are required to create such beds-hills. At the same time, as the calculations of the author show, the above-mentioned waste in the absolute majority of sites is quite enough to create a garden in a period of no more than three years. Therefore, when you plant trees in the fall or think about your plans for a new summer cottage in winter, it will be quite justified to take into account the experience I have outlined.