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Cinquefoil - Species And Cultivation
Cinquefoil - Species And Cultivation

Video: Cinquefoil - Species And Cultivation

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Video: MyNature Apps; Identifying Common Cinquefoil, Potentilla simplex 2023, January
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Cinquefoil is a beautiful plant for alpine slides

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Probably, every owner of a garden plot is well familiar with Potentilla, which is considered by amateur gardeners to be an intractable weed, but only a few of them know about the wonderful properties of Potentilla, which has long been used both as a medicinal and as an ornamental plant.

Potentilla belongs to the Rosaceae family. Its decorative qualities are given by delicate golden flowers, which look unusually beautiful against the background of silvery leaves.

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The plant is characterized by increased aggressiveness and vitality. Almost all types of Potentilla reproduce independently with the help of whiskers, which very quickly creep over the soil, occupying rather large areas of the site.

Therefore, if you decide to have this wonderful plant in your summer cottage, then you need to take care of the timely removal of the mustache.

The name itself comes from the Latin word "potens" - which means strength, power, it used to be very important, since the plant was used in large quantities in folk medicine. The genus itself is very extensive and has over 300 species, most of which are distributed in the northern hemisphere.

The general characteristics of this diverse genus are as follows: the plants are annual, biennial or perennial, always rhizome and herbaceous, sometimes shrubs with erect, creeping or ascending stems and trifoliate, finger-like or pinnate leaves. As for the flowers, they are yellow and white, pinkish and purple, they are placed both singly and collected in lush inflorescences.

Types of Potentilla

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For its endurance, tolerance and high decorative qualities, Potentilla has earned love among decorators. The most common are perennial species, here is a brief description of some of them:

The first place in this list is undoubtedly occupied by the Altai Potentilla, it is quite widespread, occupying sparse deciduous forests, Altai meadows, high-mountain tundra of Altai, Tuva, Chita region and Yakutia, where, moreover, it is also endemic.

The plant is a "structure" consisting of thin, straight stems reaching a height of half a meter; the stems are enveloped by trifoliate basal leaves, in which the presence of pressed long hairs is observed along the veins. There are also leaflets, the length of which does not exceed 2.5 cm, and the width is 1.2 cm. The inflorescence is low-flowered, reaching a diameter of 10-15 mm

Apennine cinquefoil. … In natural conditions, it grows in the mountains of Europe: the Apennines and the Balkans, where it occupies an altitude belt of 1600-2200 meters. The plant is perennial, reaching a height of 15 centimeters with trifoliate, silvery and pubescent leaves, against the background of which pink or white-pink flowers reaching 1.5 centimeters in diameter are clearly visible, blooming at the very end of summer. Usually, this type of Potentilla is planted in the crevices of stones on the eastern slopes of the rock garden.

Cinquefoil is snow-white, grows on rocks, talus, rocky slopes, pebbles, on the alpine lawns of Eurasia and North America. Like many types of ornamental cinquefoil, it is a perennial, reaching a height of 30 centimeters with straight or semi-prostrate, cobweb-hairy, like leaf petioles, stems. Basal leaves are trifoliate, and the leaves themselves are serrated-incised, painted in bright green from above, and whitish from below, often pubescent. The flowers are quite large for this plant, and can reach two centimeters in diameter; an interesting detail of this type of Potentilla is that the flowers are located on rather long pedicels.

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Stemless cinquefoil is a very interesting perennial creeping species. Under natural conditions it grows in China, Mongolia and Siberia, spreading over the steppes, rocky and gravelly slopes and edges of pine forests.

Sometimes this view "crawls" to the heights of alpine meadows, reaching an altitude of 3000 meters above sea level. Curly stems, have trifoliate leaves, covered with a thick felt of stellate hairs with an admixture of long simple ones. Flowers reach 1.7 centimeters in diameter, and their number in an inflorescence can reach 4 pieces.

Shiny cinquefoil - the natural habitat of this species is the eastern and southern regions of the limestone and dolomite Alps and the Apennines. The plant itself is a very decorative combination of dark pink petals, which are extremely well combined with silvery foliage.

Cinquefoil goose is the most widespread species found in nature in Russia. Differs in feathery large-toothed leaves and yellow flowers that delight us for a very long time. The first flowers bloom in May, and the last ones die from the first frosts in the fall. The plant is extremely unpretentious and hardy. Very resistant to air pollution, sometimes it literally breaks through the thickness of the asphalt of highways.

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Two-flowered cinquefoil - naturally grows in the alpine zone along stony placers, on the rocks of Siberia, Central Asia, Chukotka, the Himalayas, Tibet and North America.

It is a cushion-shaped semi-shrub, reaching a height of eight centimeters and dressed at the base with the remains of petioles and dead leaves. Stems are numerous, woody, leafless in the lower part.

Segments of leaflets are entire, reaching 1.2 centimeters in length. The flowers are 1.2-1.7 centimeters in diameter, in their inflorescences up to three pieces.

Cinquefoil long-leaved - in natural conditions grows in the steppes, on dry meadows, open rocky slopes, forest edges and in the sparse forests of Siberia, Central Asia and Mongolia. A perennial plant, consisting of tall, up to a meter long erect stems with green glandular and pubescent basal and lower stem petals, reaching 1.5 centimeters in length. Flowers are small and not numerous.

Strawberry cinquefoil - at home grows on dry and forest meadows, meadow-steppe slopes, sparse forests, river valleys and deposits of Siberia, the Far East, Mongolia and Manchuria. This is a perennial plant, the stems of which rise no higher than 20 centimeters, low-leafed and covered, like leaf stalks, with hairs. Basal leaves are pinnate with 3-4 pairs of serrated leaflets, sometimes with an admixture of trifoliate, green on both sides, pubescent with adjacent hairs. The flowers reach 1.6 cm in diameter and are located in a rather numerous corymbose inflorescence.

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Bloodroot

Golden cinquefoil - comes from the mountainous regions of Western Europe and Asia Minor, is a perennial plant, reaching twenty centimeters in height and literally covered with finger-like and shiny leaves, silky-pubescent on the underside.

The flowers are rather large, with a rich golden yellow color, located in small inflorescences. This type of Potentilla blooms, starting in the second half of summer, for two months.

Cinquefoil Krantz - naturally grows in the alpine and arctic tundra, along the banks of streams, rocky slopes, in the alpine and subalpine meadows of Europe, Siberia, the Caucasus, Asia Minor and North America. A perennial plant with ascending, arcuate curved, less often straight stems, reaching a height of 25 centimeters, sometimes in the upper part they are slightly tomentose. Basal and lower stem leaves are palmate, fivefold, rarely with an admixture of trifoliate, green on both sides, sometimes pubescent, and often sparsely glandular on the underside. Leaves with rather large teeth in the upper part. The flowers are large, up to two centimeters in diameter and are located in a small-flowered loose inflorescence.

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Large-flowered cinquefoil, its homeland is Japan, but, despite this, it successfully winters in central Russia. Differs in fluffy and gray-green foliage, similar to strawberry, in this regard, it is in perfect harmony with plants that have bronze or bluish foliage.

The species is characterized by large (hence the name) bright flowers of rich yellow color, which appear in June and bloom until frost resistant. Plant height is small, rarely exceeds 8 centimeters. This type of Potentilla is mainly used in rocky gardens and as a ground cover plant.

Shaggy cinquefoil in natural conditions lives on the rocks and stony slopes of sea terraces, in coastal meadows and pebbles of North America and Chukotka. Shaggy cinquefoil is a perennial reaching a height of 25 centimeters. The plant itself is densely feathery pubescent with ascending stems and trifoliate, densely hairy above, and white tomentose leaves below. Small leaves from rounded to oblong-ovate, deeply toothed along the edge. Flowers are yellow, up to 2 centimeters in diameter, their number in inflorescences can reach 5 pieces.

Nepalese cinquefoil - naturally grows in the Western Himalayas and Nepal, is a fairly tall perennial (up to 50 centimeters) with straight, branched and purple stems. The leaves are large, finger-like, reaching 30 centimeters in length and colored dark green. The flowers are very large, especially for Potentilla, reaching three centimeters in diameter, pleasing to the eye with a light pink or red color. Paniculate inflorescences light up in July, and this "fire" lasts 50-55 days.

Cinquefoil deceiving is a Himalayan perennial that grows to eight centimeters in height and blooms from June to August. It is a creeping species with woody stems at the bottom. The species is distinguished by the fact that it loves sandy soil and sunny places very much, on which it quickly creates relatively large rugs.

Tansy cinquefoil - naturally grows on stony open slopes, in the steppes, in forest glades and edges of Siberia, the Far East, Mongolia and northern China. It is a perennial with erect, high stems, ascending at the base and glandular at the crown. The basal and lower stem leaves are pinnate, green on both sides (and especially below), sometimes pubescent. The leaves are incised-toothed, and the flowers, reaching a diameter of 1.8 centimeters, are located in a multiflorous corymbose inflorescence.

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Cinquefoil straight - inhabits the tundra and forest zones and the mountain-forest belt of Europe and Western Siberia, the Caucasus and Asia Minor. It is common on the edges of forests, on lawns, along the banks of rivers, streams and on the outskirts of swamps. Occasionally enters the tundra and mountain tundra belt.

It is a perennial herb 15-40 centimeters tall with thin, highly branched and well leafy stems in the upper half. Flowers are golden yellow in color, quite numerous, blooming in June-August. In addition to decorative, it also has medicinal value, rhizomes are healing.

Silver-leaved cinquefoil - grows in the Western and Central Himalayas. It is a typical perennial, reaching a height of 30 centimeters with yellow flowers blooming in June-July.

Cinquefoil is dark blood-red, its homeland is the Himalayas and Nepal. It is a perennial plant up to 60 centimeters tall with straight, branched, pubescent stems. The leaves are trifoliate and serrate along the edge, the upper part is colored light green, and the lower is white-tomentose. An interesting detail of this type of Potentilla: the lower leaves are planted on petioles, and the upper leaves are sessile (without petiole). The flowers are simply huge for Potentilla, brilliant red, they reach five centimeters in diameter and are collected in corymbose or paniculate inflorescences. This species, perhaps, is one of the most winter-hardy and beautifully flowering plants (blooms for 50 days).

Three-toothed cinquefoil is a low perennial carpet plant with dark green leaves. Its shoots are lignified at the base, reaching a height of 30 centimeters. The flowers are very interesting - white, small in diameter, but located in numerous and very lush inflorescences, pleasing to the eye throughout the summer. Three-toothed cinquefoil is used as a ground cover plant, as well as as single plantings in a rocky garden.

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Cultivation of Potentilla

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So, we got acquainted with the main, most common types of cinquefoil used in landscape design and garden construction. Now you should acquaint the reader with the most significant details when choosing a planting site, soil, teach how to propagate this wonderful plant and use it in garden design.

Location: Potentilla is quite light-requiring and winter-hardy, so the appropriate place should be chosen for them. Of course, the most ideal is the alpine slides, where these wonderful plants will feel great!

Requirements for the soil: Potentilla is undemanding to it, however, they reach their full and better development on loose and nutritious soils containing a sufficient amount of lime.

Reproduction: Potentilla plants are propagated in trivial and quite accessible ways: by dividing the bush, offspring, cuttings and seeds.

Reproduction by dividing the bush is perhaps the easiest way of vegetative propagation and consists in digging up the entire plant and carefully dividing it with a sharpened pruner into two or more parts, and then planting them in a permanent place.

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The method of propagation by root suckers is somewhat different from the first and is more complex. It consists in neatly separating them and transplanting them to a permanent place. But the most difficult is the method of propagation by green cuttings and is as follows: in June-July, young, but rather elastic shoots are selected, of which cuttings 4-6 centimeters long with one or two internodes are cut.

Then they are planted in a greenhouse under a film in a substrate of fertile soil, on top of which sand is poured with a layer of 5-7 centimeters. When planted in June, roots form in September. The resulting rooted cuttings should be immediately transplanted into the ground, and only next fall you will receive full-fledged planting material.

The most effective method of propagation is still by sowing seeds. You can sow them at any time, and the resulting seedlings bloom in the second year.

Usage: Potentilla is successfully used both in group plantings and in single plantings, mainly as alpine plants. Potentilla is especially successfully combined with low-growing Veronica and bells.

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