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Video: Growing A Rose: Where To Start, Which Variety To Choose
2023 Author: Sebastian Paterson | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 20:34
Rose is the beautiful queen of flowers
Probably, a rose in the morning dew can be considered one of the natural wonders of this world. Let it be just one rose, it will still be able to make you forget, while you contemplate it, about the dollar rate and about the chilling breakfast.
After all, a rose in a garden is not like a rose in a bouquet: here you can observe how a bud grows, then a flower opens, how it begins to glow from within, how frost draws patterns on the autumn leaves of a rose bush. You can endlessly admire the amazing shape of a half-opened bud or flower. Roses do not have an ugly bush shape, they also have beautiful leaves. Even the evil thorns on the branches are very decorative, although they have to walk around with scratched hands.
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You can start with a single rose in order to get acquainted with all the subtleties of its character and desires, in order to learn how to care for it. And only after 2-3 years, when you understand that a rose is your plant, with which you have a mutual understanding, you can plant even the whole garden with roses. The main thing is that you can provide care for them, because they will claim all your time and attention.
I started to get involved in roses 15 years ago. And due to inexperience, I started not with one bush. They brought me grafted one-year-olds from the Baltic states, and for several years I created my collection, planting 5-10 bushes every year. Planted about 40 bushes of different varieties. Among them were varieties that have passed tests in the State Botanical Garden of the USSR Academy of Sciences and are recommended for widespread use in the middle lane and more northern regions, as well as new varieties that have not yet been tested. Now there are 25 of the most resistant varieties, the oldest of them are 15 years old.
Let's calculate our strength
For those who want to grow roses, I will say right away that it takes a lot of time to care for them. So, it takes exactly two weeks to prepare my bushes for winter, seven days a week, if you work from morning to evening only with roses. After all, they must be spud, cut off, cut off all the leaves, disinfected and covered according to all the rules. In spring, it takes no less time to open roses - and this is at the most intense sowing time! And there is no time for anything other than fiddling with roses. Still, a rose is not a plant for our north, and 25 bushes is a lot if there are no good helpers.
It is enough to have 3-5 bushes from the floribunda or hybrid tea groups in the garden, and 1 climbing rose bush - it will be beautiful and will not require excessive expenditure of energy. But the rest of the care is not only not burdensome, but also a pleasure, although it requires a lot of physical strength. It is necessary to water, loosen and cut roses just in the period of their growth and flowering, when they are very beautiful, so running around the bushes with a watering can is even somehow pleasant.
Caring for roses at this time brings satisfaction also because roses are incredibly grateful plants that respond violently to caring for them with abundant flowering. Rose always strives to bloom, in my opinion, this is her favorite occupation, and this is her difference from all other shrubs. You can simply "get sick" with roses. Anyone who deliberately tried to grow at least one rose bush is captured by them forever.
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What to choose from: garden groups (classes) of roses
Roses are very diverse. So, in structure, a rose bush can be sprawling, semi-spreading, compact. In height - from 20 cm to 3-4 m. Flowers are simple, semi-double, double; large and small. The color of the flowers is one-color, two-color, multi-color. The petals are flat, bent, wavy, toothed, twisted in shape. The leaves are glossy and matte, hard and soft, the color is from light green to dark green. The aroma of flowers can be fragrant, very fragrant, weak, with little or no aroma.
Modern roses are divided into garden groups (classes), of which we have the following most common:
Hybrid tea roses are the most popular, bushes up to 1.5 m, flowers are large, beautifully shaped with a high center, often single.
Floribunda roses - each flower cluster has several small flowers, modern varieties have flowers of very beautiful shape and color. The group is more resilient than the previous one.
Climbing roses - most of them have long thin lashes up to 4 m long, small flowers are collected in inflorescences - these are real climbing rambler roses. Modern varieties can have strong, tough stems and rather large, beautifully shaped flowers - these are climbers. There are especially large-flowered climbing roses - klaymbings - I draw attention to them so that they do not be tempted and do not buy them - these are roses for the south. Less popular (because there are fewer of them) are the Grandiflora group and the new groups of Groundcover roses, Patio roses. Polyanthus roses, the ancestors of the floribunda, are becoming a thing of the past. Miniature roses, which are grown as indoor plants, in the garden and on balconies in pots, rarely in the ground, are becoming a thing of the past.
Shrub roses are an extensive group of usually tall roses, both old garden forms and modern ones. This group includes Parkovye and Semi-plaited roses.
Now these classes are indicated on the packages of roses. However, this classification is already considered outdated, because even experts cannot always accurately determine to which class a particular rose belongs, confusion often results. Therefore, a new classification is proposed - not by origin, but by purpose. For example, roses are proposed to be divided into groups of climbing roses, rabatkovy, miniature, park, rose hips, ground cover, noble roses, etc. So soon we will probably see new inscriptions on packages with seedlings. Thus, you can choose roses according to your needs.
There is no need to rush to acquire the newest varieties, listening to advertisements and beautiful pictures, because new is not always suitable for us. It is better to first plant varieties that have been tested in our region and are resistant to our climatic conditions. True, the beauty of many new varieties can make you take risks.
Rose varieties: what died and what survived
What varieties have died in my first place over the past 15 years? Unfortunately, those who have the strongest aroma and who were famous for it. For example, Duftwolke, famous for its scent.
All blue roses died - Mainzer Fastnacht, Shocking Blue, Jacaranda - they are very, very fragrant. (Pure blue roses do not exist yet, they simply call blue roses, in which the color deviates towards blue, in fact, they are bluish-lilac or bluish-gray).
The roses of Cordes, bred for cutting and living in greenhouse conditions, for example, Champagne, did not want to live in the open ground.
Miniature roses also did not live long in the garden - I think because of my inexperience, because I managed to grow them in the open field.
When I analyzed the dead and preserved varieties by class, it turned out that varieties from garden groups of park and climbing roses proved to be the most hardy in our climate. Floribundas and many hybrid tea roses do well. The most unstable varieties belong to the group of semi-growing roses - from this group, the most beautiful varieties have died. The gardeners from the section of rose lovers at the House of Scientists in Lesnoye got the same results. In general, the impression is that the most resistant varieties are the oldest, which are 50-100 years old.
The most dangerous period in the life of roses is their first wintering. At this time, most of the bushes die. This requires special hiding places. During the second winter, only the most frail specimens fall out. In the future, matured and stronger bushes endure all our climatic troubles.
Here is a list of mature varieties that have adorned my garden for many years, and therefore I can recommend them for growing in our area. Almost all of them were "born" in Germany and France.
- Class of hybrid tea roses: Gloria Dei, Burgundy 81, Folklore, Angelica, Madame Delbar, Grand Mogul, Alexandra, Belami.
- Floribunda class: Sonya, Ay Paint, Lilly Marlene, La Minuette, Eropeana, Frisia (Freesia, Sunsprite) - the only surviving, very fragrant rose.
- Climbing Roses Class: Excelsa, Dorothy Perkins, Pauls Scarlet Climber, New Down, Itersen Rosarium, Flammentanz, Heidelberg.
- Class of Semi-climbing and spray roses: Lighthouse - a variety bred in the Nikitsky Botanical Garden. Westerland is a variety that has lived for no more than three years for most of the gardeners who have grown it, for me it "lasts" for 13 years.
- Class of Park roses: Ritausma (a variety originally from Latvia), Grothendorst and Pink Grothendorst - roses with carnation petals, Robusta, as well as Dornrezchen and Rheinaupark (according to another classification, these two roses belong to the group of semi-growing roses).
Roses in our northern gardens can suffer from rain, morning fog: spots appear on the petals. Such a disadvantage is the abundantly blooming beauty Belami - a hybrid tea rose with the most delicate pink flowers. All other roses in my garden are resistant to dampness, even heavy rains. It is noticeable that we often do not have enough warmth for them. Although they bloom well in cold summers and look great, they are incomparably more abundant in warm summers. Of course, it is more modest than in the south. However, there roses suffer from the heat during the day, and in our north they are good in the morning dew, and at noon, and in the evening. On warm days, roses smell stronger.
The time for planting roses in the ground is spring, no later than June 10, so that they have time to take root well. Otherwise, they will not winter in our area. The later the rose is planted, the less chance it has to survive. Planting roses in autumn is almost useless for us, no matter how sellers convince you otherwise.
If the buds on the seedling have not yet woken up, you can plant it immediately as soon as the soil thaws. If the buds have begun to grow, you will have to delay planting until mid-May.
Before planting, the bushes must be gradually accustomed to the open air, to the sun. The hardened bushes acquire a pink "tan" on the bark. If after landing in the ground frosts come, you will have to cover them for the night, for example, with a cardboard box, otherwise the young shoots will freeze. It is also necessary to shelter adult bushes from frost, on which young shoots have rushed to appear.
In order for roses to grow well and bloom profusely, the soil must be cultivated by at least 50 cm, and for climbing roses - 60 cm. If this layer on the site is smaller, you need to dig a planting hole with dimensions of 50 x 50-60 cm under each bush and fill its fertile land without undecomposed organic matter. Add superphosphate, ash - half a liter can each, you can experiment with the new AVA fertilizer.
Do not dig holes in clay soil where water will accumulate. It is imperative to ensure the possibility of water flow, drainage. The larger the pit, the slower the bush growing in it will age. The distance between the bushes depends on their future size and is 40-60 cm, for climbing roses - 1-1.5 m.
When planting, the graft site (roses are usually grafted onto wild-growing species) must be deepened by 5-8 cm - the lighter the soil, the greater the deepening. If the vaccination site is wrapped with a ribbon, it must be removed.
If the exposed roots have dried out a little, then before planting, you need to lower the entire bush in warm water overnight. In such bushes, before planting in the ground, it is necessary to cut out dry roots, and shorten the remaining roots to 20 cm. It would be nice to bathe the roots in a clay mash.
Before planting, the seedlings are cut off, leaving 2 - 3 strongest shoots on the bushes, all other shoots are small and curved, as well as shoots thinner than a pencil are cut out completely. It is necessary to carefully examine the seedling: there are no wild animals on it - shoots that have grown below the grafting site (this also happens). Cut off the wild birds completely, without leaving hemp. Cover all the places of the cuts with garden pitch. The left shoots are shortened, leaving 2 - 3 buds on each, for climbing roses - 5-8 buds.
After planting in the ground, the bushes are abundantly watered and mulched with a layer of peat of 10 cm. Some gardeners spud the bushes by 15-10 cm - in order to preserve the cultivated part in case of frost, and when the buds start to grow, the bushes are gently and gradually bored.
It is necessary to plant the bushes in the evening, preferably in cloudy weather. It is advisable to shade them from the sun for several days, for example, to put on a hat from a newspaper.
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