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Video: Growing Clematis
Growing beautiful vines in the northwest of Russia
Clematis plants begin to bloom on the shoots of the last year and continue on the shoots of the current year, i.e. some of the shoots should preferably be preserved (1-1.5 m).
When growing clematis, the question: pruning - not pruning the shoots - is very important. Success is ensured to someone who always knows the correct answer to this question when growing various groups of clematis.
I believe that it is more important for novice growers to choose the right group and variety of clematis, focusing on unpretentiousness and stability. It is high time to understand one truth: we are in a zone of very bad climatic conditions. Therefore, the emphasis should be on alpin clematis and large-flowered clematis of the Jacqueman and Viticella group. The Lanuginoza group is less suitable. In the climate of Europe, the emphasis is on clematis of the Patens groups, Florida (by the way, they are brought to us more often than others).
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The originators of domestic breeding clematis - Sharonova, Orlov, Kivastik, Vaigla, Riekstinia, Beskaravaynaya - understood this and focused on the selection of the first two groups. Therefore, domestic varieties are preferable from the point of view of exploitation. Outstanding foreign varieties have become entrenched in our country due to their unpretentiousness. These are classic varieties - Ville De Lyon, Victoria, Jacquemany, Jacksie Queen, Nelly Moser, Rouge Cardinal. There are not so many of these varieties. These are masterpieces of world selection.
The choice of planting material
As a rule, gardeners acquire clematis in the form of rooted one-year-old cuttings. The material is weak. The best option is to plant the plants for growing in your own nursery for two years. Clematis easily tolerate a transplant both in spring (the best dates are early May) and in autumn. In the first 2-3 years, the vine mainly works on increasing the root system.
For beginners, the best option is to buy two or three-year-old large cuttings with a large volume of roots and 3-4 or more shoots in nurseries. Such a division can be immediately planted in operation. It can bloom in the year of planting. Delenki are very tenacious, can be safely stored in the refrigerator, in moist moss for about a month.
Agrotechnics of clematis
Clematis are plants that require mandatory compliance with several rules. Firstly, they are still plants of mountains and foothills, hills - from this it follows that they should be grown in soil of a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction. The use of deoxidized peat, even low-lying peat, does not give good results. Plain old garden soil, compost is fine. Secondly, clematis grow very quickly in May-June - up to 5-6 cm or more per day.
They form a large number of shoots, therefore, in spring and early summer, they require good moisture. A structured garden soil stores a large amount of spring moisture. The sand dries quickly, peat gives an acidic reaction, the clay is heavy, poorly nutritious. At the same time, clematis categorically do not like an excess of water, its stagnation in the zone of the root collar. This is the most vulnerable spot of the plant. Here are the buds of renewal (remember peonies, dahlias).
Thus, the suction roots can be in a waterlogged zone, but the root collar should be raised to avoid the impact of melt spring waters, July showers. In practice, this can be achieved by raising the clematis by 20-25 cm when planting (rabat, bed, raised flower garden, etc.). Thirdly, the landing pit should be thoroughly prepared. Clematis grow in one place up to 6-8 years.
Then the bush grows old, the number of stems becomes more than 100 pieces, the flowering weakens, the soil is depleted. Therefore, the volume of the soil should provide nutrition for the plant for the next few years. The suction roots reach a depth of 1 m. The average dimensions of the pit are 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.7 (0.8). Garden soils, rich in humus, good results are obtained by using a three-year compost. Usually, a certain amount of complex fertilizers is added to the soil, filled with phosphorus fertilizers. Literary sources advise to make 4-5 dressings in the summer.
In the spring - with a high nitrogen content, in the second half of the season - potassium, phosphorus. There are no specific recommendations. It is advised to water clematis with milk of lime, i.e. remember the need to alkalinize the soil. Fourthly, when planting clematis, the root collar should be deepened by 10-15 cm. This event will cause the formation of additional roots, which will enhance the nutrition of the plant. And during wintering, conditions in the root collar zone will be more favorable.
I am a supporter of spring planting. Clematis begin to develop at a temperature of + 5 + 6 ° C. Like all lianas, they do not like excessive heating of the soil in the zone of exit from the ground. Apply flat grass mulching, planting ground cover plants. Clematis easily tolerate frosts of -5-6 ° C, do not stop flowering even in September-October. You can trim clematis in the fall, you can in the spring. Shoots that need to be preserved are laid on the ground, covered with branches or some kind of breathable material. Do not use roofing felt, roofing felt, polyethylene - during a thaw, excess moisture can lead to damping of the stems.
Frosts are not terrible for clematis, excess moisture is destructive. Under a natural layer of snow, clematis calmly survived the harsh winters of 1987 and 2003, having endured temperatures of minus 44 ° C. I never write in articles, I do not speak in lectures about the use of spruce branches. Gardeners are like children: tell them what to cover with spruce branches, and goodbye, spruce forests. Let's do floriculture not at the expense of nature. There are so many other ecological methods and materials around us (reeds, old boxes). In early spring, the shelter is removed as early as possible.
Reproduction of clematis
My favorite is to propagate clematis by division. The method is the simplest and most effective. In early spring we dig up 6-10-year-old clematis, wash it off the ground and divide it.
Large parcels - for operation, weak stubs - for the nursery. Most importantly, any division must necessarily have a part of the stem of the last year and roots. Renewal buds are located at the junction of the stems and roots. Divide clematis with a knife, secateurs. A lot in the refrigerator in moss can lie for more than a month.
When planting, you can also use modern biostimulants. The second way is grafting. Cuttings with one or two pairs of leaves are cut during budding, flowering, immediately after flowering. By this time (usually the beginning of July), the shoots partially woody. Such cuttings root better. Greens are worse.
I cut in the sand, in the most ordinary cuttings. Rooting takes 25 to 35 days. Clematis alpina is cut better. The use of biostimulants increases rooting. The usual result is 90-100%. By the way, alpina can be cut with last year's stems, i.e. already in the spring. When transplanted into the ground, the roots do not break, so that they can be immediately transferred into the ground from the cuttings.
In August-September, rooting decreases, and young plants overwinter worse. It is clear that clematis can also be propagated by the layering method. Species clematis, as a rule, propagate by seeds. Purchased seeds require stratification and germinate in different ways - from one month to six months. Large-flowered clematis also set seeds. When sowing them, you can get your own hybrids, the flowering of which you will see in 5-6 years.
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Features of the placement of clematis
Like any lianas, clematis feel much better in the wind, on the wall of a house, in a makeshift, on the western, eastern or southern exposure. The northern part of the house is dark and windy.
You need to know that in the bright sun red varieties fade slightly. Clematis clings with two upper pairs of petioles. The best support is a lath made of wood, iron wire. A thin mesh is impractical, and then it is difficult to clean it from shoots. Clematis grows worse in the middle of the plot, in the wind, in this case it is necessary to create backstage. You can plant at a frequency of 1 plant per 1 meter. Try to match clematis by color.
You can combine them with other vines. Clematis alpina feels better next to a concrete foundation. This species is very good on a snag, a large stone, it looks organically on a terrace, a wrought-iron fence. Clematis flowers look at the sun, this must be taken into account when choosing a place for plants.
When cut, its flowers wither quickly. Floating flowers look beautiful on the water surface. Unfortunately, clematis also get sick. Modern garden chemistry offers a number of preparations. Take it as a rule: spray the currants - process the clematis. But, in my opinion, it is wiser and more correct to correctly follow the ecology of the plant. High agricultural technology, a good choice of a variety or type, a warm place on the site, adherence to recommendations on agricultural technology will allow you to achieve a good result.
I think that it is useful for novice flower growers to familiarize themselves with the relevant literature, first of all, with the books of authors who themselves were engaged in the selection and scientific study of clematis: Beskaravaynaya M.A. "Clematis - vines of the future", 1998, Voronezh. Beskaravaynaya M.A. "Clematis", Rosagropromizdat, 1991. V.E. Riekstina, N.R. Riekstinsh. "Clematis", Agropromizdat, 1990. Some articles can be found in magazines for flower growers.